Summary of mathematical interventions

This section provides detail information on each identified study in the review. You may wish to search this table to find studies that assess interventions.

Summary of mathematical interventions

Summary of mathematical interventions

This section provides detail information on each identified study in the review. You may wish to search this table to find studies that assess interventions.


This section provides detail information on each identified study in the review. You may wish to search this table to find studies that assess interventions. You can search the content using a number of different key pieces of information, these are listed below.

Key information

Research method: Randomised control trial (the most rigorous method in intervention studies) or quasi-experimental study (a less rigorous approach).

Study title: The published title of the study

Research method: Randomised control trial (the most rigorous method in intervention studies) or quasi-experimental study (a less rigorous approach)

Note: To search on this criteria type in the research method you would like the studies you look at to have used, type either RCT or quasi-experimental into the search box.

General focus of the study: Through this review we identified studies that focused on nine broad themes.

Note: To search on this criteria type in the area you would like to find out more about in the search box:

Author(s) and publication year: Study authors and year of publication

Note: To search on this criteria type in a surname of an author that you know or the year when a study was published (between 2000 and 2017) in the search box.

Age group:Age of children involved in the study

Note: To search on this criteria type in an age (in digits) into the search box.

Summary of intervention: Details of the type of activity of teaching practice that was assessed in the study

Country: The country in which the study took place.

Note: To search on this criteria type in a country that you would like to see research from into the search box.

Intensity: Details on how long and often the intervention was applied

Outcome measure(s):The type of assessment tool(s) used to measure any impact of the intervention

Outcome(s):The evidence of any effect of the study in relation to the outcome measure(s)

Intervention resource requirement(s)Details of any resources needed to apply the intervention (e.g. training, software, etc)

You can search the information on the following criteria: research method, general focus of the study, authors and publication year, age group and country.


Study Title: Effect of the Van Hiele Model in Geometric Concepts Acquisition The Attitudes towards Geometry and Learning Transfer Effect of the First Three Grades Students in Jordan.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Alebous 2016

Age Group: 6-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: The impact of using the Van Hiele model to inform the teaching of geometry. This model has five phases visualisation analysis abstraction deduction and rigour. The control group was taught using conventional methods.

Country: Jordan

Intensity: Not specified

Outcome Measure: Geometric concepts acquisition test author generated

Outcome: The intervention led to significant improvements with the Van Hiele group outperforming the control group who were taught conventionally.

Intervention Resource: Author developed materials

Study Title: Does fostering reasoning strategies for relatively difficult basic combinations promote transfer by K3 students

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Baroody, Purpura, Eiland, Reid Paliwal 2016

Age Group: 4-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess whether computerbased training that focuses on the conceptual bases for two different reasoning strategies namely subtraction as addition and use10 improves mental arithmetic skills. A control drill condition was also used.

Country: USA

Intensity: 7.5 weeks of preparation for all children then 12 weeks of computerised training. Two 30 min sessions per week.

Outcome Measure: Mental arithmetic test author generated

Outcome: At posttest the subtraction as addition group outperformed the use10 and drill group on arithmetic subtraction fluency. The use10 group outperformed the subtraction as addition and control groups on addition problems.

Intervention Resource: Author generated computerised tasks computers

Study Title: Improving basic math skills through integrated dynamic representation strategies.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: GonzlezCastro, Cueli, Cabeza, AlvarezGarcia Rodriguez 2014

Age Group: 6-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the impact of the implementation of an adaptive computerised Integrated Dynamic Representation strategy on informal and formal basic mathematical skills. This intervention involves participants identifying key concepts visualising these concepts and integrating representations. Control participants experienced traditional teaching methods.

Country: Spain

Intensity: 45 50 minute sessions

Outcome Measure: Mathematical achievement was assessed using the Test of Early Mathematical Abilities TEMA3 Ginsburg Baroody.

Outcome: The experimental group displayed significant improvement in informal numbers comparison calculation and informal concepts and formal skills conventionalisms and formal concepts. There was no significant improvement in number facts or formal calculus when compared to a business as usual control group.

Intervention Resource: Specialist training for the teacher delivering the intervention. Tool software and computers

Study Title: Learning about the equal sign Does comparing with inequality symbols help.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Hattikudur Alibali 2010

Age Group: 8-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess whether instruction that uses comparison of the equals sign to other relational symbols is better at conveying the relational aspect of the equals sign rather than pure instruction about the equals sign alone. Three groups were assessed a group that was instructed through comparison of the equals sign to other symbols a group that was directly instructed about the equals and a control group.

Country: USA

Intensity: 30 mins

Outcome Measure: Equivalence problems test author generated

Outcome: Children in the comparing condition displayed greater increases in conceptual understanding when compared with the direct instruction group and control group. They also showed better performance in assessments of knowledge of inequality symbols and inequality problem solving in comparison to the other two groups.

Intervention Resource: Author generated practice sheets

Study Title: It pays to be organized Organizing arithmetic practice around equivalent values facilitates understanding of math equivalence.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: McNeil, Chesney, Matthews, Fyfe, Peterson, Dunwiddie Wheeler 2012

Age Group: 7-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the impact of the structure of arithmetic fact practice on understanding of mathematical equivalence. Problems were either grouped by equivalent sums grouped by iterative shared addends or no additional practice

Country: USA

Intensity: 7 weeks 100 min total

Outcome Measure: Tests to assess equation solving equation encoding and defining the equals sign author generated used in prior publications

Outcome: The group that used facts organised by equivalent values showed better understanding of math equivalence than the other groups.

Intervention Resource: Author generated workbook

Study Title: Arithmetic practice can be modified to promote understanding of mathematical equivalence.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: McNeil, Fyfe Dunwiddle 2015

Age Group: 7-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the effectiveness of modifying practice to teach the understanding of equivalence. The control group completed traditional workbooks i.e. in operations answer format 4 3 _. The intervention group completed modified workbooks i.e. including operations on the right hand side of the equals sign the replacement of the sign with relational words and blocking of sums with the same answer.

Country: USA

Intensity: One off session

Outcome Measure: Authorgenerated tests were used to measure equation solving and equation encoding skills. In addition children were assessed on their ability to define the equal sign with an authorgenerated test. Computational fluency was assessed using a timed addition test Geary Bow Thams Lui Sielger 1996 and the Math Computation subscale of the Iowa Test of Basic Skills test.

Outcome: Children in the intervention group displayed better understanding of equivalence than the control group both at posttest and up to 6 months after the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on computational fluency or performance on the Math Computation test.

Intervention Resource: Author generated workbook

Study Title: Fostering fluency with basic addition and subtraction facts.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Paliwal 2013

Age Group: 4-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the effectiveness of computerised structured training on the compliment principle compared to unstructured subtraction practice or a control condition that used structured training on a different mathematical topic.

Country: USA

Intensity: 12 weeks 30 minute sessions twice per week

Outcome Measure: Author generated computational shortcut task to gauge understanding of the complement principle. Children must be able to identify the shortcut to complete the problem accurately and quickly

Outcome: The structured subtraction group outperformed the other groups in knowledge of the complement principle and use of the principle

Intervention Resource: Auhtor generated computer software computers.

Study Title: The development of the concept of multiplication

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Park Nunes 2001

Age Group: 5-6 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the impact of teaching multiplication by repeated addition or through correspondence.

Country: England

Intensity: Two school days part

Outcome Measure: Additive and multiplicative reasoning problems author generated

Outcome: Both groups made significant progress in additive and multiplicative reasoning. The group taught by correspondence made more progress in multiplicative reasoning skills than the repeated addition group.

Intervention Resource: Author generated workbook

Study Title: Enhancing childrens conceptual understanding of mathematics through Chartworld software.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Ploger Hecht 2009

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessment of the efficacy of Chartworld computerised game that teaches arithmetic and number theory. The software allows children to made visual displays of models that can be manipulated. Experiment 1 Focused on the effect of the intervention on conceptual and procedural knowledge of multiplication and division. Experiment 2 Targeted conceptual and procedural knowledge of prime and composite numbers. In both experiments the control group followed a traditional textbook.

Country: USA

Intensity: Experiment 1 8 lessons of 30 mins. Experiment 2 6 lessons of 45 mins

Outcome Measure: Structured interview and written test author generated. The specific details of these assessments were not recorded.

Outcome: Experiment 1 The chartworld group displayed significant benefits in terms of the skills assessed by the structured interview and the written test. Experiment 2 The Chartworld group displayed greater gains on the semi structured interviews and written test performance when compared to the control group.

Intervention Resource: Author generated materials in Chartworld software computers

Study Title: A randomized trial of an elementary school mathematics software intervention Spatialtemporal math.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Rutherford, Farkas, Duncan, Burchinal, Kibrick, Graham, Richland, Tran, Schneider, Duran Martinez 2014

Age Group: 7-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the efficacy of SpatioTemporal Math a computerised teaching programme. This intervention focused on teaching children the links between mathematical concepts through visualisation. A focus on spatial relationships is also included in the intervention. Participants were also recruited into a business as usual control group.

Country: USA

Intensity: Two years with the intervention children receiving 90 minutes additional maths instruction per week.

Outcome Measure: Mathematical achievement was assessed using the California Standard Tests.

Outcome: The intervention produced a minimal increase in mathematics achievement over a oneyear period for all participants when compared to the control group. There were no significant effects over the two year period.

Intervention Resource: Professional development training for all teachers delivering the intervention. Spatiotemporal Maths software 35 per student. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: The effectiveness of using incorrect examples to support learning about decimal magnitude.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Magnitude

Author(s) and publication year: Durkin RittleJohnson 2012

Age Group: 9-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the efficacy of comparing incorrect and correct examples on learning about decimal magnitude compared to comparing correct examples.

Country: USA

Intensity: 25 mins

Outcome Measure: Author generated conceptual and procedural test for completing decimal number line estimation

Outcome: The incorrect condition helped students learn correct procedures and key concepts more than the correct condition including reducing misconceptions.

Intervention Resource: Resource packet author generated

Study Title: Improving childrens knowledge of fraction magnitudes.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Magnitude

Author(s) and publication year: Fazio, Kennedy Siegler 2016

Age Group: 9-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the impact of a computerised fraction game on childrens understanding of fraction magnitudes. This game required children to make number line fraction estimations in a gamebased environment children received feedback on their performance. A control group was also recruited. This group completed the number line estimation game without feedback.

Country: USA

Intensity: 1 off session 15 minutes

Outcome Measure: Performance was assessed using an author generated number line estimation test magnitude comparison test and fraction recall test.

Outcome: Across two studies evidence suggested that the intervention increased childrens number line estimation magnitude comparison and recall of fraction information performance. No improvement was observed in the control groups performance.

Intervention Resource: Catch The Monster computerised game adapted by authors computers

Study Title: The Effects of Digital Tools on Third Graders Understanding of Concepts and Development of Skills in Multiplication.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Magnitude

Author(s) and publication year: Yoon 2015

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the impact of digital intervention tools on multiplication skills and number sense. Participants were assigned to either a virtual number line intervention a dynamic hundreds chart i.e. a morphable multiplication chart or a control reading group.

Country: USA

Intensity: 4 sessions over 4 weeks

Outcome Measure: Number skills and understanding were assessed using subtests from the mClass Math standardised test. These subtests assessed participants number pattern knowledge and quantity discrimination skills. A timed multiplication test was also administered. This was author generated with specific questions being based on those from an age appropriate textbook. An author generated task also assessed childrens understanding of multiplication from different conceptual models.

Outcome: Overall all groups made significant improvements across all four tests. There was no difference in performance between the two intervention groups. but these intervention groups outperformed the control group at posttest.

Intervention Resource: MathemAnticsTM software developed at Teachers College Columbia University. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Number sense or working memory The effect of two computerbased trainings on mathematical skills in elementary school.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Basic number skills

Author(s) and publication year: Khun Holling 2014

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Comparing the impact of number sense versus working memory training on arithmetic achievement. The number sense training focused on number line estimation and number comparison. The working memory training focused on spatial working memory skills such as remembering spatial locations. A control group was also recruited.

Country: Germany

Intensity: 20 mins per day for 15 days

Outcome Measure: Standardised mathematical achievement was assessed using the DEMAT Krajewski Liehm Schneider 2004

Outcome: Both training groups displayed significant improvement in arithmetic achievement. The working memory group showed increased word problem solving over the number sense group.

Intervention Resource: Computerised number sense or working memory training game authorgenerated. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: The Development and Empowerment of Mathematical Abilities The Impact of Pencil and Paper and Computerised Interventions for Preschool Children.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Basic number skills

Author(s) and publication year: Mascia, Agus, Fastame, Penna, Sale Pessa 2015

Age Group: 5 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Comparing the impact of paper and pencil versus computerised training. The training was playbased focusing on Arabic number knowledge such as sequence understanding and estimation. A control group was also assessed.

Country: Italy

Intensity: Computer group 10 x 30 mins Paper and pencil 10 x 1 hour

Outcome Measure: Numerical knowledge was assessed using the BIN Numerical Intelligence Scale Molin Poli Lucangeli 2007 that assesses skills such as linking number words to quantities and reciting number word lists.

Outcome: Both computerised and paper and pencil training groups showed significant improvement in numerical knowledge over time these were significantly higher than the control group. There was no significant difference in performance between the two intervention groups.

Intervention Resource: Training materials from Lintelligenza numerical Lucangeli Poli Molin 2003 and Sviluppare lintelligenza numerical Lucangeli Poli Molin 2010 either in paper and pencil format or in computerized format author generated

Study Title: How training on exact or approximate mental representations of number can enhance firstgrade students basic number processing and arithmetic skills.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Basic number skills

Author(s) and publication year: Obersteiner, Reiss Ufer 2013

Age Group: 6 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of exact approximate or both exact and approximate number processing computer game on arithmetic achievement. A control group was also assessed.

Country: Germany

Intensity: 10 training sessions of 30 minutes each over a period of 4 weeks

Outcome Measure: A variety of basic number skills were assessed using author generated tasks such as exact and approximate number processing tasks subitizing conceptual subitizing magnitude comparison and approximate calculating. Items from the Hamburger Rechentest were used to assess arithmetic achievement

Outcome: Improvement was displayed on the trained skill i.e. exact or approximate skills but no cross over was observed between intervention groups. Achievement in arithmetic was higher in the experimental groups than the control group at posttest

Intervention Resource: Computerised games based on The Number Race Wilson et al. 2006 opensource software

Study Title: Enhancing young childrens arithmetic skills through nonintensive computerised kindergarten interventions A randomised controlled study.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Basic number skills

Author(s) and publication year: Praet Desoete 2014

Age Group: 5 years-old

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the efficacy of computerised interventions on childrens early mathematical skills. Children were assigned to either a counting or number comparison intervention. There was also a control group.

Country: Belgium

Intensity: 9 x 25 min session

Outcome Measure: Standardised mathematical achievement was assessed using the TEDImath Calculation subtest and Kortrijk arithmetic test. Number line estimation was also assessed author generated.

Outcome: Children in the number comparison and counting group performed better in arithmetic than the control group. Both intervention groups had a better number knowledge compared to the control group. Children in the counting intervention group did better than those in the number comparison group on calculation. There were no group differences in number line estimation performance at follow up.

Intervention Resource: Computer Assisted Intervention serious games source not specified trained professionals to deliver the intervention

Study Title: Examining the effects of number sense instruction on mathematics competence of kindergarten students.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Basic number skills

Author(s) and publication year: Sood Mackey 2015

Age Group: Mean age 56 years-old

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the efficacy of number sense and general classroom instruction on mathematical skills. The number sense training intervention followed a structured programme focusing on key topics such as more and less partwhole relationships etc. A business as usual control group was also assessed.

Country: USA

Intensity: All children received 60 minutes of maths instruction 4 weeks for 20 mins 5 days a week

Outcome Measure: Standardised mathematical achievement was assessed using the Stanford Achievement Test SESAT subtest of the Stanford Achievement Test SAT10. The Early NumeracyCurriculum Based Measures ENCBM assessed early numeracy skills. Number sense was assessed with an authorgenerated test.

Outcome: Both groups made significant gains. For the combined group on the ENCBM significant improvement for 3 of the 6 subtests was reported. There were also significant improvements on all of the 5 subtests on the Number Sense test. The combined intervention group outperformed the control group at delayed posttest on the majority of tests.

Intervention Resource: Number sense program adapted from existing sources Bell Bell Bretzlauf Dellard Hartfeild Isaacs et al. 2004 Columba Kim Moe 2005 Van de Walle 2007 or author generated

Study Title: Effects of playing mathematics computer games on primary school students multiplicative reasoning ability.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Bakker, van den HeuvelPanhuize Robitzsch 2015

Age Group: 6-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the effects of playing mathematics computer games on primary school students multiplicative reasoning ability. There were four separate groups maths games integrated into lessons playing games at home with no supervision playing games at home with feedback and a control group who played other maths games on different topics.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: 2 years1129 Children were assessed at the end of both school years

Outcome Measure: Three components of multiplicative reasoning were assessed knowledge of number facts skills in multiplication operations and insight into multiplicative relations. These tasks were author generated.

Outcome: School based intervention group improved in insight into multiplicative relations only

Intervention Resource: Computerised game software available for free from httpwww.fisme.science.uu.nlpublicatiessubsetsrekenweb_en

Study Title: Effect of modifying intervention set size with acquisition rate data while practicing singledigit multiplication facts.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Burns, Zaslofsky, Maki Kwong 2015

Age Group: 8-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the impact of varying intervention set size either 2 8 or a personalised number of multiplication facts with acquisition rate or the amount that a child can learn within a session data on learning singledigit multiplication facts

Country: USA

Intensity: One off session

Outcome Measure: Multiplication maths fact retention was assessed using author generated flash cards. Each fact correctly answered within 2 sec was classified as being recalled.

Outcome: The tailored acquisition rate group those who experienced a personalised number of maths facts suitable for their acquisition rate retained significantly more information than comparison groups who were either taught 2 or 8 maths facts.

Intervention Resource: Flash cards author generated

Study Title: Computerbased training for improving mental calculation in thirdand fifthgraders.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Caviola, Gerotto Mammarella 2016

Age Group: 8-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the impact of computerbased mental addition training. Three groups were recruited a strategic training group following strategic cues suggested by the training programme a process based training group children were asked to complete each problem as quickly and as accurately as possible and a passive control group.

Country: Italy

Intensity: 3 x 1 hour sessions

Outcome Measure: Author generated tests assessed complex mental addition and subtraction skills math fluency in addition and subtraction. Childrens ability to identify and apply math rules was assessed by Numerical Reasoning task Thurstone Thurstone 1963.

Outcome: Overall complex mental addition improved with training but the group differences were not clear. 3rd grade The strategic training group improved in complex subtraction but the process based training group became worse. 5th grade Neither of the training groups enhanced performance in complex subtraction. All groups improved in math fluency for addition for both age groups. Strategic training caused the greatest gains for Grade 3 participants. There were no differences in gains between groups for Grade 5 children. Overall participants improved in math fluency for subtraction but this was not group dependent. There was also slight improvement in numerical reasoning but this was not group dependent.

Intervention Resource: Computerised problems author generated computers

Study Title: Improving mathematics learning of kindergarten students through computerassisted instruction.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Foster, Anthony, Clements Samara 2016

Age Group: 5-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the impact of the Building Blocks Software on mathematical achievement compared to a computer assisted literacy programme focusing on phonological awareness. The Building Blocks software focuses on developing numeracy and geometry skills specifically fluency and understanding through 200 games.

Country: USA

Intensity: 21 weeks of 90 mins per week

Outcome Measure: Woodcock Johnson III test of achievement Applied Problems subtest to assess mathematical problem solving and the Early Maths Assessment REMA assessed numeracy skills with subscales measuring number recognition and subitizing composition of number arithmetic and number comparison and sequencing.

Outcome: The Building Blocks group performed significantly better than the control group on the Applied Problem Solving test and the total REMA test score the same pattern was observed for all REMA subtests except for number comparison and sequencing subtest on which the control and experimental group performed similarly.

Intervention Resource: Building Blocks software. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Combined fluency and cognitive strategies instruction improves mathematics achievement in early elementary school.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Carr, Taasoobshirazi, Stroud Royer 2011

Age Group: 7-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: To assess if combined fluency and cognitive strategies instruction improves mathematics achievement in early elementary school. There were four groups in the study a computerised task targeting increased fluency in addition and subtraction a program to improve strategy use in addition and subtraction a combined program and a control group.

Country: USA

Intensity: 40 half hour sessions over 20 weeks

Outcome Measure: Cognitive Aptitude Assessment System was used to measure mathematical fluency. An author generated test to assess cognitive strategy use in addition and subtraction problems. Mathematics achievement was assessed using an authorgenerated test pooling existing available maths problems.

Outcome: The combined fluency and cognitive strategies group displayed significantly greater mathematical achievement compared to the other groups. The strategies group were more accurate in solving problems than the control group.

Intervention Resource: Computerised training tasks authorgenerated. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Differential effects of three computerassisted instruction programs on the development of math skills among primary grade students

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: ErkfritzGay 2009

Age Group: 6-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This intervention involved providing examples of the completion of column addition with or without the stepwise strategy visible. There were three conditions traditional drill and practice constant time delay or cover copy and compare.

Country: USA

Intensity: Daily for three weeks

Outcome Measure: Author generated mathematics addition computation test to assess fluency and accuracy. Student and teacher acceptability of the intervention was also measured.

Outcome: No difference in performance between groups at posttest. Participants rated all intervention conditions as acceptable. Teachers rated TDP CTD better than CCC

Intervention Resource: Author generated addition problem computerised software. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: A comparison of single and multiple strategy instruction on thirdgrade students mathematical problem solving.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Jitendra, Griffin, Haria, Leh, Adams Kaduvettoor 2007

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the difference in impact of single strategy instruction compared to multiple strategy instruction in improving mathematical problem solving and maths achievement.

Country: USA

Intensity: 25 mins x 5 times a week

Outcome Measure: Author generated mathematical word problem solving test. The SAT9 was used to assess mathematics problem solving and procedures. Basic maths computation fluency was assessed using a measure by Fuchs Hamlett Fuchs 1998. Standardised maths achievement was assessed with the Pennsylvania System of School Assessment PSSA Mathematics test.

Outcome: Single strategy instruction led to more favourable gains in mathematical problem solving than multiple strategy instruction the same pattern was observed for the PSSA standardised test. There were no significant group effects for improvement in computation.

Intervention Resource: Mathematical word problems author generated

Study Title: Enhancing students mathematical beliefs An intervention study.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Mason Scrivani 2004

Age Group: 10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of cultural change in the classroom towards actively doing maths with mathematical problem solving through representation and staged problem solving. Children were trained to reflect on problem solving strategies as to their appropriateness. A control group was also assessed.

Country: Italy

Intensity: 12 sessions 1.5 hour per session over a period of 3 months

Outcome Measure: An author generated test assessed beliefs about maths maths learning and self in relation to maths. Mathematical achievement was assessed using an author generated word problem solving. Children reported a selfevaluation of effort. Teachers also provided evaluation of childrens maths achievement

Outcome: The experimental group increased advanced beliefs about themselves as maths learners and maths and mathematical problem solving when compared to the control group. The experimental group overall outperformed the control group in word problem solving. The control group reported reported lower perceived effort and understanding than the experimental group.

Intervention Resource: Mathematical problem solving tasks unclear source

Study Title: Effect of Training in Math Metacognitive Strategy on Fractional Achievement of Nigerian Schoolchildren.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Onu, Eskay, Igbo, Obiyo Agbo 2012

Age Group: 11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: To assess the effectiveness of training in math metacognitive strategies following a learning strategy model. The experimental group was compared to a control group.

Country: Nigeria

Intensity: 4 weeks of training

Outcome Measure: Author generated fraction achievement test developed from textbook questions

Outcome: The experimental group outperformed control group at posttest in achievement in fractional mathematics

Intervention Resource: Author generated math Metacognitive Training Programme.

Study Title: Learning mathematics in a visuospatial format A randomized controlled trial of mental abacus instruction.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Manipulatives

Author(s) and publication year: Barner, Alvarez, Sullivan, Brooks, Srinivasan Frank 2016

Age Group: 5-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess whether mental abacus skills can be trained and whether this will influence mathematical abilities. The control group had supplementary text bookbased maths education.

Country: India

Intensity: 3 hours a week over a period of three years

Outcome Measure: Calculation subtest of the WJIIIC Math Fluency subtest of the WIATIII and two author generated measures to assess a single and multidigit arithmetic and b conceptual understanding of place value

Outcome: The abacus group showed increased mathematical abilities compared to the control group as measured by the arithmetic and WJII Calculation tests but not on other measures.

Intervention Resource: Abacus author generated workbooks

Study Title: Developing childrens understanding of fractions an intervention study.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Manipulatives

Author(s) and publication year: Gabriel, Coche, Szucs, Carette, Rey Content 2012

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the impact of gamelike tasks that intended to increase understanding of fractions. The games involved matching and comparing fractions and estimating the outcome of the addition of fractions using concrete manipulatives as support tools. A control group received traditional instruction on fractions.

Country: Belgium

Intensity: Twice a week 30 mins per session for 10 weeks

Outcome Measure: Author generated conceptual and procedural test focused on the understanding of fractions

Outcome: The experimental group scored higher at posttest on conceptual and procedural understanding of fractions when compared to the control group.

Intervention Resource: Playing cards for Memory War Old Maid Treasure Hunt and Blackjack. Wooden disks to represent fractions

Study Title: Abacus training affects math and task switching abilities and modulates their relationships in Chinese children.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Manipulatives

Author(s) and publication year: Wang, Geng, Yao, Weng, Hu Chen 2015

Age Group: 6 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: To assess the effectiveness of the use of abacus mental calculation a traditional method used in Asian countries. First the group learnt with a physical abacus and then move on to using an imagined abacus. Results in the abacus group were compared to a control group.

Country: China

Intensity: 2 hours per week for 26 months additional assessment taken at 9 months after school entry

Outcome Measure: Chinese version of the Heidelberg Rechentest covers mental addition subtraction multiplication division number equation completion and number comparison

Outcome: Abacus training group outperformed the control group on all subscales significant improvement between grade 2 and 4 for the experimental group not the case for the control group

Intervention Resource: Abacus

Study Title: Implementation of a ModelTracingBased Learning Diagnosis System to Promote Elementary Students Learning in Mathematics.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Feedback

Author(s) and publication year: Chu, Yang, Tseng Yang 2014

Age Group: 11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the impact of a computerised onetoone tutoring system. This system was adaptive and identified participants specific issues with learning mathematics to target feedback. The control group experienced a conventional system that only provided information on accuracy of answers.

Country: Taiwan

Intensity: 3 weeks

Outcome Measure: Author generated paper and pencil fraction knowledge test

Outcome: The results show that the computerised tutoring system is significantly more helpful to the students in learning mathematics than the conventional webbased test in terms of learning achievements.

Intervention Resource: Author generated modeltracing Intelligent Tutor MIT software author generated. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: The effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and student motivation Results of a randomized experiment.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Feedback

Author(s) and publication year: Faber, Luyten Visscher 2017

Age Group: 6 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of an adaptive digital assessment tool Snappet that provides formative feedback on mathematical achievement and motivation. A business as usual control group was also assessed.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: 5 months

Outcome Measure: Cito standardised mathematical achievement test arithmetic geometry time and money calculations. The Intrinsic Motivation Inventory was used to measure motivation.

Outcome: There was a significant and positive effect of the formative assessment tool on mathematical achievement. Higher performing students benefitted more from the formative assessment tool than lower performing students

Intervention Resource: Snappet formative assessment tool. Tablet computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: The benefits of computergenerated feedback for mathematics problem solving.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Feedback

Author(s) and publication year: Fyfe RittleJohnson 2016

Age Group: 7-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: An examination of the impact of computerised feedback on mathematical problem solving assessing the influence of immediate or summative feedback. A control group received no feedback.

Country: USA

Intensity: 25 mins

Outcome Measure: Author adapted selfassessment of students reflection on their performance made them feel. An adapted version of a previously published tool by the authors RittleJohnson et al. 2011 was used to assess equation problem solving.

Outcome: Immediate feedback had the largest impact on learning. Summative feedback also improved learning compared to no feedback. There was a differential effect of feedback on children with low and high prior knowledge. Children with low prior knowledge benefitted from both immediate and summative feedback children with high prior knowledge did not benefit from either intervention.

Intervention Resource: Author generated computerised problem solving task. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Scaffolding gamebased learning Impact on learning achievements perceived learning and game experiences.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Technology for enagagement

Author(s) and publication year: Barzilai Blau 2014

Age Group: 8-12 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Investigate the impact of a business simulation game with additional external scaffold for conceptual understanding to solve financial maths word problems. There were three groups in the study Study and play scaffold first then game play Play and study the reverse and Play only.

Country: Israel

Intensity: 10 days

Outcome Measure: Author generated formal problemsolving assessment consisting of mathematical word problems. Perceived learning enjoyment and flow was also measured.

Outcome: No significant gains in problem solving were observed. However the Study and Play group performed better in the posttest problem solving test. The Study and Play condition reduced the participants perceived learning. The introduction of the scaffold did not impact on enjoyment or flow.

Intervention Resource: Games accessed through My Money website httpmoneyen.galim.org.ilabout.html Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Learning multiplication through computerassisted learning activities.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Technology for enagagement

Author(s) and publication year: Chang, Sung, Chen Huang 2008

Age Group: 8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the effectiveness of training of concepts meaning properties and computation of multiplication in a computerised game environment. Performance in the experimental group was compared to a control group.

Country: Taiwan

Intensity: 3 weeks 120 min teaching sessions per week

Outcome Measure: Author generated assessment of concepts meaning properties and computation of multiplication. Expert feedback to increase validity of the tests.

Outcome: The intervention improved concepts meaning properties and computation of multiplication for lower performing participants only.

Intervention Resource: Computerised games these were assumed to be author generated. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Effects of gamebased learning in an OpenSimsupported virtual environment on mathematical performance.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Technology for enagagement

Author(s) and publication year: Kim Ke 2016

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assess the impact of story game in a virtual reality environment based on a sandwich bar on learning of fraction concepts. The control group completed the same tasks on a computer but these were in the form of word problems.

Country: USA

Intensity: 45 minutes

Outcome Measure: Author generated fraction test based on CCSS practice items. Items were verified by teachers for their appropriateness.

Outcome: Both the experimental and control group improved in their math learning achievement but the increase was significantly greater for the experimental group.

Intervention Resource: Author generated virtual Reality environment shop game built in OpenSim software. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: On the Robustness of the Quizzing Effect under Real Teaching Conditions.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Betsch Quittenbaum 2015

Age Group: 9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of scripted direct instruction on childrens learning about symmetry. The restudying group read out answers to questions. The quizzing group recalled the answer and were given the correct feedback if incorrect.

Country: Germany

Intensity: One 90 minute lesson

Outcome Measure: Geometry knowledge was assessed using an author generated geometry test based on questions from textbooks.

Outcome: The restudying group displayed enhanced performance at immediate followup. The quizzing group displayed enhanced learning at 6 weeks follow up.

Intervention Resource: Script for teaching symmetry based on the school curriculum symmetry problems both author generated

Study Title: Use of a storytelling context to improve girls and boys geometry skills in kindergarten.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Casey, Erkut, Ceder Young 2008

Age Group: 5-6 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of storytelling contexts to improve childrens geometry skills. There were two studies in this paper 1 Investigated the impact of a story context that focused on partwhole relations in comparison to a control group who received regular mathematics instruction 2 Compared a story telling context to teach geometry versus traditional instruction on geometry.

Country: USA

Intensity: 2 days x 20 min session

Outcome Measure: For Study 1 learning was assessed through tasks that measured both near and far transfer puzzles using the same pieces as in the intervention and novel puzzle pieces respectively. A modified Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children KABC Triangles subtest was used to assess near transfer. Far transfer was assessed using a Tangram task Schiro 2000.

Outcome: Study 1 indicated that the intervention only positively affected girls but not boys performance on near transfer tasks. Boys performance increased independent of group membership. There was no effect on far transfer tasks. Study 2 revealed that children in the story telling group improved in both near and far transfer tasks in comparison to the traditional geometry instruction group.

Intervention Resource: Activity focused Tan and the Shape Changer and Round the Rug Math Adventures in Problem Solving books 2D and 3D shapes

Study Title: An Investigation of Fifth Grade Students Conceptual Development of Probability through Activity Based Instruction A QuasiExperimental Study.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Gurbuz, Catligou, Birgin Erdem 2010

Age Group: 10-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of group discussions on childrens learning. Children engaged in group discussions that questioned problem solving processes with the aim to construct knowledge compared to control children who were taught by a teacher in a traditional didactic manner. A control group was also assessed.

Country: Turkey

Intensity: 4 teaching hours

Outcome Measure: An author generated Conceptual Development Test tested sample space probability comparisons and probability of an event reasoning skills.

Outcome: Higher conceptual scores at posttest were observed for all measures for the experimental group than the control group

Intervention Resource: Probability problems source unclear

Study Title: Evaluating the effects of PeerAssited Learning Strategies PALS in mathematics plus an anxiety treatment on achievement in third grade students.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Hugger 2012

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of mathematics focused peer assisted learning PAL on mathematics performance and anxiety. There were four conditions in this study PAL PAL and relaxation relaxation only and a control group.

Country: USA

Intensity: The PAL intervention lasted for 12 weeks children completed two 30 minute sessions per week. The relaxation group completed 5 minutes of relaxation activities combined with a timed 25 minute maths intervention per session. The PALS and relaxation session lasted the same amount of time as the other conditions. The control group completed supplementary maths activities.

Outcome Measure: Mathematics computation scores were measured using the AIMSweb Mathematics Computation CurriculumBased Measure MCOMP and anxiety was assessed using the Revised Childrens Manifest Anxiety Scale Second Edition RCMAS2

Outcome: There were no group differences in posttest mathematics computation scores. There was also no significant group difference in anxiety scores.

Intervention Resource: Teachers received training on the intervention techniques lasting 12 hours. The PAL training group received a manual and worksheets. The relaxation training teachers were provided with a manual and command cards.

Study Title: Using songs in mathematics instruction Results from pilot application.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Kocabas 2009

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: To assess the impact of delivery of mathematics instruction using group singing in comparison to a control group.

Country: Turkey

Intensity: Academic term

Outcome Measure: Participants were assessed using two scales 1 Attitude towards Mathematics Baykul 1990 and 2 the Scale of Multiple Intelligences Kocobas 2007

Outcome: The experimental groups positive attitude towards maths increased more substantially than the control groups. There were no significant improvements in mathematics achievement.

Intervention Resource: Songs with mathematical content recorded to CD author generated

Study Title: Physically Active Math andLanguage Lessons Improve Academic Achievement A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: MullenderWijnsma, Hartman, de Greef, Doolard, Bosker Visscher 2015

Age Group: 7-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the efficacy of teaching academic lessons through physical activity. Children in the intervention group experiences physically active lessons children in the control group experienced practice as usual.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: 2 years 22 weeks per year 3 times a week for 2030 min sessions. Half of the time in each session was dedicated to maths the other half was dedicated to spelling.

Outcome Measure: The Speed TestArithmetic assessed timed arithmetic performance. Data from the child academic monitoring system was also accessed this provides a standardised mathematics performance measure.

Outcome: Results indicated that participants in the intervention group displayed increased performance in the speeded outcome measure compared to the control participants after 2 years. Intervention participants also displayed significantly more improvement in mathematical achievement than the control group after both 1 and 2 years.

Intervention Resource: Physically Active Lessons manual authorgenerated computer interactive whiteboard

Study Title: Watch your step children Learning twodigit numbers through mirrorbased observation of selfinitiated body movements.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Ruiter, Loyens Paas 2015

Age Group: 7-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessing the efficacy of teaching doubledigit numbers through movement on a number line. Some participants were assigned to a group in which they observed their own behaviour in a mirror. Control participants were asked to construct doubledigit numbers on a ruler with pencil and paper. In a second control children were asked to view a ruler across a room verbally construct the doubledigit number and then walk to the point on the ruler.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: One session

Outcome Measure: Mathematics performance was assessed using an author generated Number Building Exercises test that assessed the participants ability to build twodigit numbers. Participants were also asked their opinion on the intervention and their views on the tasks.

Outcome: Children in movement conditions were associated with higher maths test performance. There was no difference between the mirror and nonmirror movement group in terms of maths outcome. There were no group differences in childrens opinions of the interventions.

Intervention Resource: Large floor ruler

Study Title: Effects of reading picture books on kindergartners mathematics performance.

Research Method: RCT

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: van den Heuvelpanhuizen, Elia Robitzch 2016

Age Group: 4-5 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of delivery of mathematical content through picture story books on mathematical learning. Teachers were provided with scripts to guide their questioning with participants these activities were completed over and above traditional mathematics instruction. Control children experienced traditional classroom teaching only.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: 3 months. Two picture books were read in class per week.

Outcome Measure: An author generated assessment described as the PICO test was used to assess mathematical skills.

Outcome: Both the control and intervention group improved in their maths skills over the period of the intervention. However the intervention group displayed significantly greater growth than the control group.

Intervention Resource: Twentyfour commercially available picture books with mathematical content for example Ga je mee Lets go Dematons 2005 reading guidelines for teachers

Study Title: The benefits of a challenge student motivation and flow experience in tabletPCgamebased learning.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Hung, Sun Yu 2015

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: To assess the impact of an Ipad application on learning and applying concepts of addition and subtraction. Children were either assigned to an experimental group who experienced challenging games or a control group who experienced matching games.

Country: Taiwan

Intensity: The intervention consisted of a 40 minute session.

Outcome Measure: Selfefficacy for science selfefficacy for technology flow experiences and feelings about the games were assessed through a questionnaire adapted from previous studies. Mathematics achievement was assessed by a teachergenerated test.

Outcome: Children assigned to the experimental group displayed better performance than the control group. The experimental group also reported better flow experience and satisfaction.

Intervention Resource: This intervention required tablet computers and the Motion Math Hungry fish application httpsmotionmathgames.com

Study Title: Effects of a specific numeracy educational program in kindergarten children A pilot study.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Kaufman, Delazer, Pohl, Semenza Dowker 2005

Age Group: 5-6 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study compared the impact of a numeracyspecific intervention that focused on conceptual understanding and counting principles. The intervention was delivered in small groups and children were given opportunities to learn by trial and error. The control group was active and were trained in procedural skills. This training was unstructured.

Country: Austria

Intensity: 15 minutes every other day for a full semester

Outcome Measure: Arithmetic skills were assessed using the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children calculation subtest. In addition an authorgenerated test was used to assess number processing and calculation

Outcome: Children in the experimental group showed significant learning in counting sequences and mental calculation.

Intervention Resource: Author generated materials were used to deliver the instruction. Teachers were provided with monthly supervision by a researcher.

Study Title: Young Childrens Reasoning about Many_to_One Correspondences.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Conceptual understanding

Author(s) and publication year: Sophian Madrid 2003

Age Group: 5-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study investigated the impact of manytoone mapping training. Experiment 1 focused on the iterative nature of manytoone correspondence i.e. the multiplicative relationship wne being told to place 3 flowers in each of 4 vases. The experimental group received training that focused on the relationship between large blocks and sets of smaller blocks i.e. 3 small blocks for each large block etc the control group compare heights of stacks of blocks i.e. to observe when a stack of small blocks reached the same height as two large blocks. Experiment 2 expanded the sample of 7 yearolds and increased the intensity of the intervention.

Country: USA

Intensity: One off session to deliver a brief intervention 1015 minutes

Outcome Measure: Childrens manytoone correspondence skills were assessed by an authorgenerated pictorial ratio completion problem test in which children had to complete some multiplicative relationship to be the same on the left and right side of an equation.

Outcome: Overall these experiments provided limited evidence to suggest that the focus of the intervention aided learning substantial gains were only observed for 7 yearolds this was driven by large improvements in a small subset of the participants.

Intervention Resource: Wooden 2D blocks of varying sizes

Study Title: Evaluation of an innovative mathematics program in terms of classroom environment student attitudes and conceptual development.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Spinner Fraser 2005

Age Group: 10-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of the Class Banking System CBS on mathematical learning. This system assists teachers in using constructivist pedagogical approaches through an innovative program focusing on conceptual development through collaboration with classmates. Children were assigned to either an experimental or a control group.

Country: USA

Intensity: The intervention lasted one academic year

Outcome Measure: The classroom environment was measured using the Individualised Classroom Environment Questionnaire and the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey. Attitudes toward mathematics were assessed using the Test of Mathematics Related Attitudes. An authorgenerated concept map was also administered this assessed childrens knowledge of geometry algebra etc. Additional case studies were also completed.

Outcome: Change in environment scores were significant for both groups on the majority of subscales. The effect size associated with the change was generally larger for the experimental group compared to the control group. Changes in achievement as measured by the concept mapping task in the experimental group that were higher than the control were consistently reported.

Intervention Resource: As this is a change in approach in teaching no additional resources are required.

Study Title: An evaluation study of the use of a cognitive tool in a onetoone classroom for promoting classroombased dialogic interaction.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Magnitudes

Author(s) and publication year: Kong 2011

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the effect of a computerised cognitive support tool on achievement engagement and perceptions of learning fractions. Specifically the Graphical Partitioning Model was used this is a computerised rectangle that can be partitioned and regrouped in order to scaffold learning. A business as usual control group was also assessed.

Country: Hong Kong

Intensity: 11 teaching sessions totalling 455 minutes

Outcome Measure: Fraction knowledge was assessed using an author generated fraction test focusing on fraction equivalence fraction addition and subtraction. An author generated questionnaire was also administered to assess attitudes.

Outcome: The cognitive tool increased student engagement. Children in the experimental group outperformed the control group in fraction learning. Children reported positive attitudes towards the tool.

Intervention Resource: The Graphical Partitioning Model software was authorgenerated. Children used this scaffold on a tablet computer.

Study Title: Brief nonsymbolic approximate number practice enhances subsequent exact symbolic arithmetic in children.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Basic number skills

Author(s) and publication year: Hyde, Khanum Spelke 2013

Age Group: 6-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: In Experiment 1 children experienced either a symbolic addition task a linelength addition task a nonsymbolic comparison task or a brightness comparison task. Experiment 2 first assigned children to either a nonsymbolic addition task or brightness comparison task. Then children were either asked to complete sentence completion tasks or symbolic addition tasks.

Country: USA

Intensity: The intervention was delivered in a oneoff session

Outcome Measure: In Experiment 1 childrens symbolic addition skills were assessed using an authorgenerated test. Approximate number comparison was assessed using the Panamath computer game. In Experiment 2 participants were asked to complete a sentence completion task or symbolic addition tasks.

Outcome: In Experiment 1 children who were in either nonsymbolic comparison or symbolic addition displayed faster response times for the symbolic addition test. In Experiment 2 children who experienced nonsymbolic comparison training were more accurate on the symbolic maths problems than children who completed brightness comparison tasks. There was no group difference in sentence completion.

Intervention Resource: Authorgenerated computerised tasks and computers.

Study Title: Effects of nonsymbolic approximate number practice on symbolic numerical abilities in Pakistani children.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Number system knowledge

Author(s) and publication year: Khanum, Hanif, Spelke, Bertletti Hyde 2016

Age Group: 6-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Experiment 1 assessed if nonsymbolic addition versus line length addition would lead to greater performance in symbolic addition. Experiment 2 assessed if nonsymbolic training would transfer to number line estimation performance when compared to control group line length addition.

Country: Pakistan

Intensity: One off training session

Outcome Measure: Experiment 1 Symbolic addition was assessed using an authorgenerated test. Nonsymbolic acuity was assessed using the Panamath task. Experiment 2 Number line estimation was assessed using a paperbased authorgenerated task.

Outcome: Experiment 1 indicated that children in the nonsymbolic training condition performed symbolic addition faster than those children in the line length condition task. Experiment 2 indicated that number line estimation performance was enhanced in the nonsymbolic intervention group compared to a control group.

Intervention Resource: The intervention was delivered via a computerised task developed by the researchers computers were therefore required.

Study Title: The Effectiveness of Technology Integration in a Metropolitan Elementary Mathematics Program Mad Dog Math.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Cohen 2012

Age Group: 7-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessed the impact of a supplementary program Mad Dog Math intervention that provided additional teaching focusing on retrieval of arithmetic facts. This computerised program is adaptive and provides learners with feedback.

Country: USA

Intensity: 10 weeks

Outcome Measure: California Standard Test measured mathematical achievement

Outcome: There was a positive effect of the computerised intervention on standardised mathematics score compared to the control group although this effect was small.

Intervention Resource: Mad Dog Math computer httpswww.maddogmath.com Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Effects of a tablet game intervention on simple addition and subtraction fluency in first graders.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Van der Ven, Segers, Takashima Verhoeven 2017

Age Group: 4-5 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of a tablet game on childrens arithmetic fluency. The experimental group played the racing car iPad game the control group were business as usual. Children were assessed immediately after then intervention and then 13 weeks later.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: 5 week intervention

Outcome Measure: Arithmetic skills were measured using an authorgenerated test this test was time limited. Tablet game motivation and attitudes towards mathematics were also measured using authorgenerated questions.

Outcome: Directly after the intervention the experimental group displayed more efficiency on nonsymbolic subtraction than the control group. There was no effect on symbolic efficiency. There was also no significant group effect on motivation

Intervention Resource: IPads and game software were required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Metacognitive prediction and evaluation skills and mathematical learning in thirdgrade students.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Desoete 2009

Age Group: 8-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the effect of training on metacognition to aid mathematical problem solving. Teachers modelled metacognitive prediction strategies when completing mathematical problems and group work reflected on these processes. A control group was also assessed.

Country: Belgium

Intensity: 5 times per week for 2 weeks each session lasted 50 minutes

Outcome Measure: Kortrijk Arithmetic Test Revision to measure arithmetic skills Arithmetic Number Facts Test to measure maths fact recall. Cognitive Developmental Arithmetics test assessed arithmetic and metacognition. Metacogntive skills were assessed with Evaluation and Prediction Assessment and a selfreport questionnaire.

Outcome: The experimental group displayed improved metacognitive skills in term of prediction and evaluation scores. The experimental group also displayed higher arithmetic skills than the control group at posttest and at the beginning of Grade 4.

Intervention Resource: No specific materials were required.

Study Title: An alternative time for telling When conceptual instruction prior to problem solving improves mathematical knowledge.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Conceptual

Author(s) and publication year: Fyfe, DeCaro, RittleJohnson 2014

Age Group: 7-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Children were assigned to either instructsolve or solveinstruct intervention groups. In the instruction component children were taught the relational meaning of the equals sign through equations. In the problem solving component children completed standard arithmetic problems and math equivalence problems. Children had to explain how they reached their answer. Children received feedback.

Country: USA

Intensity: One off session lasting 50 minutes including outcome assessment

Outcome Measure: Author generated maths equivalence test adapted from previous publications. This test focused on the meaning of the equals sign and equation structure.

Outcome: Children who received conceptual training before problem solving led to higher procedural and conceptual knowledge than vice versa. Although the solveinstruct group did also improve with time.

Intervention Resource: Author generated problems were generated to enable problem solving.

Study Title: Transfer of strategy use by semantic recoding in arithmetic problem solving.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Gamo, Sander Richard 2010

Age Group: 9-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: The results of two experiments are reported in this paper. In experiment 1 children were assigned to either an experimental or a control group. The control group was business as usual. The experimental group experienced instruction to focus on comparing isomorphic problems and strategies to solve them. On the second day children were presented with new problems and encouraged to draw a representation of the problem and then compare appropriate strategies. Experiment 2 instructed children to solve the problems using only a single operation this was not classified as an intervention. No control group was used.

Country: France

Intensity: Experiment 1 intervention consisted of two one hour sessions over two days. Experiment 2 did not involve training.

Outcome Measure: Problem solving skills and strategy use was measured using an authorgenerated problem solving test.

Outcome: In Experiment 1 the experimental group displayed increased efficient strategy use compared to the control group. The results of Experiment 2 suggest that the comparison process involved in Experiment 1 may be important for learning.

Intervention Resource: Author generated booklets. Teachers who delivered the intervention received training on problem solving.

Study Title: Word problem solving instruction in inclusive thirdgrade mathematics classrooms.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Griffin Jitendra 2008

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study compared performance of problemsolving of children who experienced schemabased instruction SBI compared to general strategy instruction GSI. A key component of the SBI instruction was the development of a problem schema and then working out a problem solution.

Country: USA

Intensity: The study took place over 20 sessions that lasted 100 minutes each one day a week. In total the sessions lasted 25 hours over an 18 week period.

Outcome Measure: Mathematics problem solving and procedures were measured using the Abbreviated Battery of the SAT9 mathematics test. Mathematical word problem solving was assessed using an author generated word problem solving test. Word problem solving fluency was measured throughout the intervention period using an author generated test. Computation fluency was assessed using a Fluency test Fuchs Fuchs 1998 in which students had to complete as many computations as possible in 3 minutes.

Outcome: Both groups displayed improved problem solving and computation skills. However the schemabased instruction group outperformed the general strategy group. The effect of the intervention did not persist to longterm followup 12 weeks after the end of the intervention.

Intervention Resource: Teachers attended two 2 hour long workshops on intervention implementation. Author generated scripts were provided to aid intervention delivery. Author generated one and twostep word problem solving lists. For the SBI condition teachers were provided with posters displaying schematic diagrams of the three problem types story and word problem solving checklists. Students were also provided with workbooks including schematic drawings and word problem solving checklists. For the GSI condition teachers were given posters of word problem steps and students were given manipulatives and workbooks.

Study Title: Improving intuition skills with realistic mathematics education.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Hirza, Kusumah Zulkardi 2014

Age Group: 11-12 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study compared Realistic Mathematics Education RME to traditional mathematical instruction. RME connects mathematical learning to reality through applied problem solving applying new strategies. The broad aim was to improve intuition in mathematics problem solving.

Country: Indonesia

Intensity: The intensity of the intervention is not reported.

Outcome Measure: Children were assessed on their mathematics intuition ability. The source of this assessment is unclear.

Outcome: Results indicated that the RME instruction led to greater gains in mathematics learning than traditional instruction.

Intervention Resource: The required resources for this intervention are not reported.

Study Title: Effects of schematising on mathematical development.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Poland van Oers 2007

Age Group: 5-6 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed whether an intervention to encourage schematising drawing dynamic explanatory diagrams to aid problem solving would lead to better mathematical achievement 2 years later. Children were assigned to either an experimental schematizing group who were taught through playbased activities or a business as usual control group.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: Children took part in schematizing activities over the course of a year.

Outcome Measure: Childrens schematizing abilities were assessed using an authorgenerated test at the end of the intervention period. 8 months after the intervention ended mathematical achievement was assessed using a national standardised test the CITO.

Outcome: Children in the schematizing group were observed to have better schematizing skills and higher mathematical achievement.

Intervention Resource: Teachertrainer support was provided the teacher and trainer observed childrens activities in order to apply new activities.

Study Title: Effect of problem solving strategies on problem solving achievement in primary school mathematics.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Strategy use

Author(s) and publication year: Sulak 2010

Age Group: 7-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of problem solving training that focused on strategies compared to a traditional instruction control group.

Country: Turkey

Intensity: 14 weeks

Outcome Measure: Children completed two authorgenerated problem solving tests. These test were administered in the middle and end of the intervention. Qualitative data was also gathered.

Outcome: Children in the experimental group showed significantly better strategy use than the control group.

Intervention Resource: Resource requirements are unclear.

Study Title: Using Mnemonic Strategies in Fourth Grade Multiplication.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Practice for fluency

Author(s) and publication year: Zutaut 2002

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the effectiveness of training multiplication skills using mnemonics. The experimental group were trained using mnemonics the control group were trained using repetition.

Country: USA

Intensity: 12 days over a threeweek period. Each practice session lasted 10 minutes.

Outcome Measure: Achievement was measured using an authorgenerated timed multiplication test.

Outcome: There were no significant group differences at posttest.

Intervention Resource: No specific resources were required for this intervention.

Study Title: The effects of using digital photographs with Geometers Sketchpad at 4th grade.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Manipulatives

Author(s) and publication year: Gecu Staici 2012

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of using digital photographs in combination with a software tool Geometers Sketchpad GSP to teach geometry specifically shape perimeters and areas. These digital images provide real world examples for students to learn with. This software is a virtual manipulatives tool. A control group used the GSP software only.

Country: Turkey

Intensity: The intervention was delivered in one two hour session per week for 5 weeks.

Outcome Measure: Geometry achievement was assessed using an author generated geometry achievement test. Childrens attitudes towards the intervention were also measured.

Outcome: Children in the experimental group scored significantly higher than children in the control group at posttest. Children reported positive views towards the intervention and they believed that the dynamic nature of the intervention aided their learning.

Intervention Resource: Authorgenerated GSP software. Additional digital images. Computers were also required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: The effects of a grouping by tens manipulative on childrens strategy use base ten understanding and mathematical knowledge.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Manipulatives

Author(s) and publication year: Pagar 2013

Age Group: 6-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the effect of a virtual visual manipulative on counting skills base ten understanding and number sense. Children were either assigned to a Transforming group children used a computerised manipulative that transformed from a unitized to a continuous presentation Unitized group children only viewed computerised unitized models or a reading software control group.

Country: USA

Intensity: Children engaged in 5 study sessions two times per week for 2.5 weeks

Outcome Measure: Childrens ability to identify tens and units was assessed with an authorgenerated task using concrete manipulatives. Posttest was carried out a week after the end of interventions. Standardised mathematics outcome was measured by mClass Math Test Lee et al. 2007. Children also completed a curriculum based measure of basic number skills. Counting on and Base Ten understanding were assessed using measures that were adapted from previous studies.

Outcome: Children in the Transforming Group displayed significantly better counting on skills at posttest. Both software groups improved in their strategy use and accuracy at posttest. The software interventions improved base ten knowledge for girls only.

Intervention Resource: Computer software MathemAntics and computers were required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Can teachers in primary education implement a metacognitive computer programme for word problem solving in their mathematics classes

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: de Kock Harskamp2013

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: To assess the impact of a webbased word problem solving program that included metacognitive hints e.g. to read and analyse plan verify. A control group was also assessed.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: 10 weeks for 20 minutes per week

Outcome Measure: Log books and questionnaires for teachers to monitor how the intervention was delivered. Log files of each participants performance on the 8 word problem solving tasks. Authorgenerated analysing word problem test to assess participants ability to analyse word problems word problem solving skills test and selfmonitoring ability.

Outcome: The experimental group outperformed the control group on all three outcome measures analysing word problems word problem solving and selfmonitoring ability.

Intervention Resource: Teacher workshop to introduce the program and provide examples of how to deliver the material and provide feedback. An authorgenerated computer program and computers were required to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: A collaborative digital pen learning approach to improving students learning achievement and motivation in mathematics courses.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: Huang, Su, Yang Liou 2016

Age Group: 10-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of collaborative learning instruction using a digital pen learning system. Children in the experimental group A were divided into small groups of 45 for problem based learning with the digital pen technology. Children in experimental group B used the digital pen in a traditional lecture based classroom. A control group was also recruited this group experienced instruction using traditional pen and paper tasks.

Country: Taiwan

Intensity: Children experienced the instruction once a week for 4 weeks each session lasted 120 minutes.

Outcome Measure: Childrens mathematics skills were assessed on mathematics knowledge using a teacher generated test. At pretest this included 20 multiple choice questions at posttest an additional 5 open questions were also added to assess problem solving. Childrens learning motivation and attitudes to learning were als assessed using previously used questionnaires.

Outcome: Posttest scores indicated that Experimental Group A had significantly higher posttest scores than Experimental Group B. Experimental Group B also had significantly higher scores than the Control Group. No group differences were observed in learning motivation and attitudes.

Intervention Resource: Digital pen hardware and software were required. Teacher developed worksheets were also provided.

Study Title: Computers and 2D geometric learning of Turkish fourth and fifth graders. British Journal of Educational Technology

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: Olkun, Smith Altun 2005

Age Group: 9-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study investigated the effect of computerised training on geometry learning. Children in the experimental group completed computerised tangram problems. The control group was business as usual.

Country: Turkey

Intensity: 80120 minutes per student dependent on the students need to acclimatise to the software.

Outcome Measure: Children knowledge of geometry was assessed using an authorgenerated test.

Outcome: Children in the experimental group outperformed children in the control group in their geometric test scores.

Intervention Resource: The intervention required computerised 2D tangram problems. Computers were required to run the intervention.

Study Title: The effects of computerassisted instruction on the achievement attitudes and retention of fourth grade mathematics students in North Cyprus.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: Pili Aksu 2013

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of computerised software on mathematical achievement. A control group was taught using traditional methods. The experimental group was taught using Frizbi Mathematics 4.

Country: Cyprus

Intensity: Both groups received 4 hours of mathematics instruction following the same mathematics curriculum and books. The experimental group then received an addition 2 hours completed Frizbi Mathematics units. The control group received additional traditional mathematics classroom instruction.

Outcome Measure: Mathematics achievement was assessed using an authorgenerated test covering multiplication division and fractions. Attitudes towards mathematics was assessed using the Mathematics Attitude Scale MAS Askar 1986 and attitudes towards computerised learning was assessed using the Computerised Assisted Learning Attitude Scale Askar Yavuz Koksal 1991.

Outcome: Posttest scores were collected at the end of the intervention and 4 months after the intervention. The experimental group outperformed the control group on achievement at posttest and followup. This difference was specifically reported for multiplication and division topics but not fractions. Reported attitudes towards both mathematics and computerised learning in the experimental group were more positive than the control group.

Intervention Resource: Frizbi Mathematics 4 computerised software was required to deliver the intervention. Computers were also required.

Study Title: The effects of iPad devices on elementary school students Mathematics achievement and attitudes.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: Singer 2015

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the impact of iPad use on childrens mathematical achievement and attitudes towards mathematics. An experimental group experienced instruction with imbedded iPads. A control group received traditional instruction. The course content was identical between groups.

Country: USA

Intensity: One academic year consisting of 180 days

Outcome Measure: Childrens attitudes towards maths was measured with the Attitudes Towards Mathematics Inventory Tapia Marsh 2004. Mathematics achievement was assessed using Pearson SuccessNet benchmarking tool which is aligned with the school curriculum.

Outcome: There were no group differences in achievement or attitudes although teachers qualitatively reported increased engagement attitudes and productivity.

Intervention Resource: iPads were required to deliver this intervention.

Study Title: Effect of using Logo on pupuils learning in twodimensional shapes.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: Yi Eu 2016

Age Group: 10-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the use of the software program Logo on childrens understanding of 2D shapes. Children were assigned to the experimental group taught through Logo or a business as usual control group.

Country: Malaysia

Intensity: 2 weeks

Outcome Measure: Achievement in geometry was measured using a nonidentified test. Perception towards Logo was measured using a questionnaire.

Outcome: Performance in the experimental was significantly better than the control group at posttest. Children also reported having positive perceptions of Logo.

Intervention Resource: Logo software and computers are required to deliver the intervention. A Logo turtle that could be programmed was also required.

Study Title: Academic music music instruction to engage thirdgrade students in learning basic fraction concepts.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Courey, Balogh, Siker Paik 2012

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Assessed the effect of a music intervention on mathematical achievement specifically on concepts and knowledge of fractions. The intervention focused specifically on temporal and proportional values of musical notes. A control group was also assessed.

Country: USA

Intensity: 6 weeks Two 45 minutes sessions a week

Outcome Measure: Author generated music test focusing on note identification and adding and subtracting notes fractions concept test and fractions worksheets focusing on computation

Outcome: There was no overall effect of the intervention on the outcome measures. However further analyses revealed that children who performed poorly on the postintervention tests and experienced the intervention benefitted in terms of their performance.

Intervention Resource: Author generated worksheets were used to facilitate learning. Drum sticks and drum pads mouse pads.

Study Title: The effects of using drawings in developing young childrens mathematical word problem solving A design experiment with thirdgrade Hungarian students.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Csikos Szitanyi 2012

Age Group: 8-9 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: The impact of visual representations through drawing on word problem solving. Participants in the intervention group made their own drawings to aid problem solving and received feedback. A control group was also assessed.

Country: Hungary

Intensity: 20 lessons did not exceed 45 minutes per session over a 5 weeks period

Outcome Measure: Author generated tests were as follows 1. Arithmetic skill test that covered curriculumbased topics. 2. A word problem test and 3. A test that assessed beliefs about mathematics

Outcome: Although performance on both the arithmetic skill and word problem test improved over the course of the intervention there was no difference between the intervention and control group in terms of their posttest performance.

Intervention Resource: Teacher training and support throughout the intervention. Authorgenerated transparencies displaying visual aids overhead projector.

Study Title: Exploring Effects of MultiTouch Tabletop on Collaborative Fraction Learning and the Relationship of Learning Behavior and Interaction with Learning Achievement.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Hwang, Shadiev, Tseng Huang 2015

Age Group: 10-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study compared the impact of multitouch table top computers which involved collaborative learning compared to traditional computers on fraction learning.

Country: Taiwan

Intensity: 20 minutes class once a week for three weeks

Outcome Measure: A teacher designed fraction test was used to assess learning. Engagement with the learning materials was also assessed specifically in terms of time to complete tasks. Children were also asked their opinions of the system and learning motivation via a questionnaire.

Outcome: Fraction learning was greater in the table top computer group compared to the traditional computer.

Intervention Resource: Table top computer and tablet computers were required to deliver this intervention.

Study Title: Making instruction and assessment responsive to diverse students progress Groupadministered dynamic assessment in teaching mathematics.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Jeltova, Birney, Fredine, Jarvin, Sternberg Grigorenko 2011

Age Group: 9-10 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study compared the effects of dynamic instruction compared to triarchic theory or successful intelligencecontrol instruction. A business as usual control group was also recruited.

Country: USA

Intensity: There were four units and each unit consisted of 10 lessons taught across a two week period

Outcome Measure: Outcomes were assessed via either a group administered dynamic posttest or the same test but dispersed with filler activities. Tests assessed geometry measurement and equivalent fractions these tests had been used in previous studies by the authors.

Outcome: The study indicates that dynamic instruction and group based assessment leads to better outcomes.

Intervention Resource: Teachers received two days worth of training prior to the intervention. Detailed contents were provided to teachers.

Study Title: A selfregulated flipped classroom approach to improving students learning performance in a mathematics course.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Lai Hwang 2016

Age Group: 10-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the effectiveness of a flipped classroom approach. Children were either assigned to a selfregulated experimental group or a traditional flipped classroom control group. Crucially children in the experimental group were asked to set their own learning goals.

Country: Taiwan

Intensity: The intervention was applied over three weeks with at least 100 minutes of learning activities in the classroom with additional homework for the flipped component.

Outcome Measure: Mathematical learning was assessed with a performance test that was developed by three teachers. Selfefficacy and selfregulation were assessed using a questionnaire.

Outcome: The experimental group displayed higher scores across measures than the control group. Children in the experimental group also displayed an ability to determine goals for their future learning.

Intervention Resource: Students were provided with ebook and quiz materials through an online system.

Study Title: Intertwining digital content and a onetoone laptop environment in teaching and learning Lessons from the time to know program.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: Rosen BeckHill 2012

Age Group: 9-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study investigated the impact of computerised onetoone training on mathematics and reading achievement. The intervention included tailored discovery learning practice environments and games. Control schools were practice as usual.

Country: USA

Intensity: 90 minutes a day was devoted to both mathematics and English language arts over a school year 6 months

Outcome Measure: Achievement was assessed using the Math and Reading Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills test. The study also collected data for unexcused absences. Children were asked to complete an authorgenerated questionnaire on learning motivation and attitudes towards computerised learning.

Outcome: Significant improvements in reading and mathematics were observed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Improvements in unexcused absences were also reported in the experimental group compared to the control group. Children also reported positive effects of the computerised intervention on motivation to learn and attitudes towards computerised tools for learning.

Intervention Resource: The use of the Time To Learn Program software and laptops to access the software. All teachers involved in the intervention received pedagogical support.

Study Title: Teaching First Grade Computation A Comparison of Traditional Instruction and Computer Enhanced Instruction.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Technology for engagement

Author(s) and publication year: Shults 2000

Age Group: 6-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study compared the effect of traditional instruction versus computerised instruction Math Blaster software on computational skills.

Country: USA

Intensity: 9 week implementation period. Both the experimental and control group experienced traditional classroom instruction. The experimental group also received an additional 1 hour per week using software the control group had an additional hour of traditional classroom instruction.

Outcome Measure: Computation skills were assessed using the computation subtest of the Comprehensive Tests of Basic Skills 4th edition

Outcome: No significant group difference in achievement was observed at posttest.

Intervention Resource: Math Blaster software and computers

Study Title: Using synchronous peer tutoring system to promote elementary students learning in mathematics.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Tsuei 2012

Age Group: 10-11 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the effectiveness of a peer tutoring systems on mathematical learning. Children were either assigned to an experimental group who experienced peer tutoring or a control group. The tutoring systems allow children to receive feedback peer rating and rewards.

Country: Taiwan

Intensity: Two school semesters with three 40 minute mathematics sessions per week. The first two sessions per week both the control and experimental group received whole class instruction. The third session students in the control group worked facetoface in pairs carrying out collaborative tasks. In the third session the experimental group worked online in pairs.

Outcome Measure: A webbased assessment tool was used to measure childrens mathematical achievement. The questions were based on relevant mathematical textbooks. The Selfconcept Scale for Children was also administered. And goal motivation was also assessed using the intrinsic goal orientation items from the Motivated strategies for Learning Questionnaire Pintrich et al. 1993. A mathematical reasoning test Kramarski Zoldan 2008 was used to assess problem solving during the tutoring session. Qualitative data was also collected.

Outcome: The experimental group significantly greater gains in mathematical achievement compared to the control group. The experimental group also displayed significantly greater increase in selfconcept and intrinsic goal orientation when compared to the control group.

Intervention Resource: GMath peer tutoring system was used to develop a massive multiplayer online gaming system computers were used to deliver the intervention.

Study Title: Improving academic performance of school_age children by physical activity in the classroom 1_year program evaluation.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: MullenderWusma, Hartmen, de Greef, Bosker, Doolaard Visscher 2015

Age Group: 6-8 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: This study assessed the effectiveness of combining physical activity into learning activities. The experimental group engaged in physically active lessons. The control group experienced traditional lessons.

Country: Netherlands

Intensity: The intervention was delivered over a period of one year. 63 lessons were developed each lesson focused on mathematics for 1015 minutes and then 1015 minutes on language problems. The intervention consisted of 3 sessions a week for 21 weeks.

Outcome Measure: Mathematics ability was assessed using the TempoTestRekenen Speed Test Arithmetic. Reading ability was assessed using the EenMinuutTest 1 Minute test.

Outcome: For the 78 yearolds children in the experimental group significantly outperformed the control group in reading and mathematics. For the 67 yearolds the experimental group had significantly lower mathematical skills at posttest than the control group. There was no significant group difference for reading skills.

Intervention Resource: Specialist teachers delivered the intervention. An interactive whiteboard was used in this intervention. Lesson material such as a manual and lesson content.

Study Title: A Study on the Effect of Mathematics Teaching Provided Through Drama on the Mathematics Ability of SixYearOld Children.

Research Method: Quasiexperimental

Sub Theme: Delivery context

Author(s) and publication year: Erdogan Baran 2009

Age Group: 6-7 year-olds

Summary of Intervention: Children were assigned to an experimental group in which mathematics was taught through drama such as role play focusing on skills such as counting mapping etc. A placebo control group engaged in activities that were not specifically tailored to develop mathematics skills. A control group attended class as usual.

Country: Turkey

Intensity: 2 days a week for 12 weeks 4550 minutes sessions per day

Outcome Measure: General Information Form and the Test of Early Mathematics Ability3

Outcome: Teaching of mathematical skills via drama led to better performance when compared to both the control groups. The placebo control group outperformed the control group.

Intervention Resource: Teaching program Mathematics Teaching Program Based on the Drama Method and relevant materials such as cards boxes books cassettes beads blocks costumes

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