Summary

It has been estimated in the US that freshwater eutrophication can cost up to £1.7 billion per year in damage costs (Dodds et al., 2009), while in the UK, the cost has been put at £114 million per year ar (Pretty et al., 2003).  The greatest proportion of these economic losses can be attributed to drinking water treatment costs, lakefront property values, cleanup costs to waterways to maintain flood defence and preserve channel capacity and reduced recreational and amenity value of water bodies for water sports, angling, and general amenities.

Due to improved management practice, the external nutrient loading has generally decreased to lakes during recent decades, however,  many shallow eutrophic lakes still have difficulties in improving their ecological condition (Egemose et al., 2010).  This lack of improvement is often caused by the release of years of accumulated nutrients (phosphorus) from the lake sediment into the water column during the spring and summer months. The increased bioavailable phosphorus then supports phytoplankton growth which can result in extreme ecological change for the aquatic system.  Implied recovery times after cessation of nutrient inputs varies widely, but recent work has modelled recovery times of upwards to a century (McCrackin et al., 2017). The addition of phosphorus fixing chemicals have been used to improve lakes ecological condition and reverse eutrophication.  This eutrophication management strategy is both expensive and the longterm success is uncertain, however, the results can be almost instantaneous.  Knowledge of the effects of lake resuspension processes and sediment stabilization on phosphorus fixing chemicals is limited.

This project will work alongside a recently awarded INTERREG CatchmentCARE €13.7 million grant and use sediment trapping techniques and a remote access sampler to explore the behaviour and stability of sediments before and after a phosphorus fixing chemical has been added to a range of lakes.

The student will be trained in chemical techniques, GIS, boat handling and will use high resolution sampling equipment (e.g. Technicap sediment trap, Mclane Remote Access sampler and YSI Multiparameter Sondes) to investigate related sedimentation processes in lakes from border catchments in the North and South of Ireland.

The output of this project will improve the phosphorus fixing regime recommended for lakes dependent on basic knowledge of a lake’s sedimentation processes.  This will result in the targeted and successful application of phosphorus fixing chemicals to problem lakes on a larger scale, improving both the trophic status and the economic impact.

References

Dodds, W.K., Bouska, W.W., Eitzmann, J.L., Pilger, T.J., Pitts, K.L., Riley, A.J., Schloesser, J.T. and Thornbrugh, D.J. (2009). "Eutrophication of US Freshwaters: Analysis of Potential Economic Damages." Environmental Science & Technology 43(1): 12-19.

Egemose, S., Reitzel, K., Andersen, F.O. and Flindt, M.R. (2010). "Chemical Lake Restoration Products: Sediment Stability and Phosphorus Dynamics." Environmental Science & Technology 44(3): 985-991.

McCrackin, M.L., Jones, H.P., Jones, P.C. and Moreno-Mateos, D. (2017). "Recovery of lakes and coastal marine ecosystems from eutrophication: A global meta-analysis." Limnology and Oceanography 62(2): 507-518.

Pretty, J.N., Mason, C.F., Nedwell, D.B., Hine, R.E., Leaf, S. and Dils, R. (2003). "Environmental costs of freshwater eutrophication in England and Wales." Environmental Science & Technology 37(2): 201-208.


Essential criteria

  • To hold, or expect to achieve by 15 August, an Upper Second Class Honours (2:1) Degree or equivalent from a UK institution (or overseas award deemed to be equivalent via UK NARIC) in a related or cognate field.
  • A comprehensive and articulate personal statement

Desirable Criteria

If the University receives a large number of applicants for the project, the following desirable criteria may be applied to shortlist applicants for interview.

  • First Class Honours (1st) Degree
  • Masters at 65%
  • Research project completion within taught Masters degree or MRES
  • Experience using research methods or other approaches relevant to the subject domain
  • Work experience relevant to the proposed project
  • Experience of presentation of research findings

Funding

    The University offers the following awards to support PhD study and applications are invited from UK, EU and overseas for the following levels of support:

    Vice Chancellors Research Studentship (VCRS)

    Full award (full-time PhD fees + DfE level of maintenance grant + RTSG for 3 years).

    This scholarship will cover full-time PhD tuition fees and provide the recipient with £15,000 maintenance grant per annum for three years (subject to satisfactory academic performance). This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training support grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.

    Vice-Chancellor’s Research Bursary (VCRB)

    Part award (full-time PhD fees + 50% DfE level of maintenance grant + RTSG for 3 years).

    This scholarship will cover full-time PhD tuition fees and provide the recipient with £7,500 maintenance grant per annum for three years (subject to satisfactory academic performance). This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training support grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.

    Vice-Chancellor’s Research Fees Bursary (VCRFB)

    Fees only award (PhD fees + RTSG for 3 years).

    This scholarship will cover full-time PhD tuition fees for three years (subject to satisfactory academic performance). This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training support grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.

    Department for the Economy (DFE)

    The scholarship will cover tuition fees at the Home rate and a maintenance allowance of £15,285 per annum for three years. EU applicants will only be eligible for the fee’s component of the studentship (no maintenance award is provided). For Non-EU nationals the candidate must be "settled" in the UK. This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training support grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.

    Due consideration should be given to financing your studies; for further information on cost of living etc. please refer to: www.ulster.ac.uk/doctoralcollege/postgraduate-research/fees-and-funding/financing-your-studies


Other information


The Doctoral College at Ulster University


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Profile picture of Michelle Clements Clements

Completing the MRes provided me with a lot of different skills, particularly in research methods and lab skills.

Michelle Clements Clements - MRes - Life and Health Sciences

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I would highly recommend Ulster University as you get so much support.  Coleraine is a beautiful town and the people are so friendly. It was a really positive experience.

Carin Cornwall - PhD Environmental Sciences

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I am a senior archaeologist and work for government in Northern Ireland. My PhD looked at the archaeological applications of high resolution airborne laser scanning or LiDAR at the Knockdhu Area of Significant Archaeological Interest (ASAI) in County Antrim. The research highlighted the importance of LiDAR analysis for the characterization and interpretation of historical landscapes, with an obvious application in supporting archaeological survey and settlement pattern research. It also reinforced the practical application of LiDAR data for cultural heritage management initiatives, such as, historic environment record augmentation, as well as, revealing patterns of change and threats to the archaeological resource at a landscape level.I am very grateful to the Northern Ireland Civil Service (NICS) who part-funded this research through their HR Centre for Applied Learning’s ‘Assistance to Study’ scheme. I would also like to thank my academic supervisors who were

Rory McNeary - PhD in Geography, Environmental Studies and Archaeology