Architectural Engineering
BEng (Hons)

2022/23 Full-time Undergraduate course


Bachelor of Engineering with Honours


Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment


Belfast School of Architecture and the Built Environment


Belfast campus

UCAS code:

The UCAS code for Ulster University is U20

Start date:

September 2022

With this degree you could become:

  • Design Engineer
  • Design Consultant
  • Energy Manager
  • Facility Manager
  • M & E Engineer
  • Project Engineer
  • R & D

Graduates from this course are now working for:

  • ARUP
  • Belfast Health and Social Care Trust
  • White Young Green (WYG)
  • Harvey Group
  • Belfast City Council
  • Semple and McKillop Consulting Engineers


An in-depth study of energy, building services, engineering, sustainability and management to help you shape the built environment of tomorrow.


The award winning BEng Hons Architectural Engineering has been designed for innovative individuals with an interest in building services and renewable technologies.

The programme aims to meet the increasing demand for skilled graduates with the expertise and knowledge to deliver energy conscious and environmentally sustainable solutions for buildings.

Pioneering research shapes our teaching. Throughout the course you will explore a number of themes including energy, building services, engineering principles, sustainability and management.

Employability is embedded within the programme structure to ensure that what you study is relevant in a real-world context. The degree offers a route to professional status with excellent employment opportunities.

Our graduates have been successful in a number of roles from design engineer to energy manager.

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About this course


Architectural Engineering at Ulster will equip you with the professional skills and knowledge for this thriving industry.

You will study the design of heating and cooling systems for buildings, electrical and energy supply and use, and water supply and disposal. You will also examine the legislations that affect the built environment and the need for a radical and sustainable approach to building services if the environmental impact of existing/new buildings is to be dramatically reduced.

Renewable energy systems are an increasing focus for the delivery of zero carbon energy and throughout the course you will explore the use and integration of these technologies.

The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) has recognised the changing role of the building services engineer. New entrants in the field need to have a greater awareness of the total building concept through an integrated design approach. As a result, emerging specialist areas like building information modelling (BIM), design and simulation tools, façade engineering or green building design have opened up new potential employment opportunities.

Our graduates have progressed to highly successful careers in various areas such as contracting, consulting, governmental and public authorities, facilities management, energy advice, education and many are successful entrepreneurs.

Opportunities also exist to continue your studies through the PhD research programmes in energy, infrastructure and sustainability issues.

Associate awards

Diploma in Professional Practice DPP

Diploma in Professional Practice International DPPI


The BEng (Hons) degree with Diploma in Professional Practice (DPP) is a sandwich course of 4 years duration. Years 1, 2 & 4 each are comprised of modules totalling 120 credit points studied over 2 semesters. Year 3 is spent in supervised industrial placement carrying 60 credit points.

One credit point involves 10 hours of learning including directed and independent study.

Start dates

  • September 2022


The content for each course is summarised on the relevant course page, along with an overview of the modules that make up the course.

Each course is approved by the University and meets the expectations of:

Attendance and Independent Study

As part of your course induction, you will be provided with details of the organisation and management of the course, including attendance and assessment requirements - usually in the form of a timetable. For full-time courses, the precise timetable for each semester is not confirmed until close to the start date and may be subject to some change in the early weeks as all courses settle into their planned patterns. For part-time courses which require attendance on particular days and times, an expectation of the days and periods of attendance will be included in the letter of offer. A course handbook is also made available.

Courses comprise modules for which the notional effort involved is indicated by its credit rating. Each credit point represents 10 hours of student effort. Undergraduate courses typically contain 10- or 20-credit modules (more usually 20) and postgraduate course typically 15- or 30-credit modules.

The normal study load expectation for an undergraduate full-time course of study in the standard academic year is 120 credit points. This amounts to around 36-42 hours of expected teaching and learning per week, inclusive of attendance requirements for lectures, seminars, tutorials, practical work, fieldwork or other scheduled classes, private study, and assessment. Part-time study load is the same as full-time pro-rata, with each credit point representing 10 hours of student effort.

Postgraduate Master’s courses typically comprise 180 credits, taken in three semesters when studied full-time. A Postgraduate Certificate (PGCert) comprises 60 credits and can usually be completed on a part-time basis in one year. A 120-credit Postgraduate Diploma (PGDip) can usually be completed on a part-time basis in two years.

Class contact times vary by course and type of module. Typically, for a module predominantly delivered through lectures you can expect at least 3 contact hours per week (lectures/seminars/tutorials). Laboratory classes often require a greater intensity of attendance in blocks. Some modules may combine lecture and laboratory. The precise model will depend on the course you apply for and may be subject to change from year to year for quality or enhancement reasons. Prospective students will be consulted about any significant changes.


Assessment methods vary and are defined explicitly in each module. Assessment can be a combination of examination and coursework but may also be only one of these methods. Assessment is designed to assess your achievement of the module’s stated learning outcomes. You can expect to receive timely feedback on all coursework assessment. The precise assessment will depend on the module and may be subject to change from year to year for quality or enhancement reasons. You will be consulted about any significant changes.

Coursework can take many forms, for example: essay, report, seminar paper, test, presentation, dissertation, design, artefacts, portfolio, journal, group work. The precise form and combination of assessment will depend on the course you apply for and the module. Details will be made available in advance through induction, the course handbook, the module specification and the assessment timetable. The details are subject to change from year to year for quality or enhancement reasons. You will be consulted about any significant changes.

Normally, a module will have 4 learning outcomes, and no more than 2 items of assessment. An item of assessment can comprise more than one task. The notional workload and the equivalence across types of assessment is standardised.

Calculation of the Final Award

The class of Honours awarded in Bachelor’s degrees is usually determined by calculation of an aggregate mark based on performance across the modules at Levels 5 and 6, (which correspond to the second and third year of full-time attendance).

Level 6 modules contribute 70% of the aggregate mark and Level 5 contributes 30% to the calculation of the class of the award. Classification of integrated Master’s degrees with Honours include a Level 7 component. The calculation in this case is: 50% Level 7, 30% Level 6, 20% Level 5. At least half the Level 5 modules must be studied at the University for Level 5 to be included in the calculation of the class.

All other qualifications have an overall grade determined by results in modules from the final level of study. In Master’s degrees of more than 200 credit points the final 120 points usually determine the overall grading.

Academic profile

The University employs over 1,000 suitably qualified and experienced academic staff - 59% have PhDs in their subject field and many have professional body recognition.

Courses are taught by staff who are Professors (25%), Readers, Senior Lecturers (18%) or Lecturers (57%).

We require most academic staff to be qualified to teach in higher education: 82% hold either Postgraduate Certificates in Higher Education Practice or higher. Most academic staff (81%) are accredited fellows of the Higher Education Academy (HEA) - the university sector professional body for teaching and learning. Many academic and technical staff hold other professional body designations related to their subject or scholarly practice.

The profiles of many academic staff can be found on the University’s departmental websites and give a detailed insight into the range of staffing and expertise. The precise staffing for a course will depend on the department(s) involved and the availability and management of staff. This is subject to change annually and is confirmed in the timetable issued at the start of the course.

Occasionally, teaching may be supplemented by suitably qualified part-time staff (usually qualified researchers) and specialist guest lecturers. In these cases, all staff are inducted, mostly through our staff development programme ‘First Steps to Teaching’. In some cases, usually for provision in one of our out-centres, Recognised University Teachers are involved, supported by the University in suitable professional development for teaching.

Figures correct for academic year 2019-2020.

Belfast campus

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High quality apartment living in Belfast city centre adjacent to the university campus.

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Student Wellbeing

At Student Wellbeing we provide many services to help students through their time at Ulster University.

Find out more - information about student wellbeing  

Belfast campus location info

  Find out more about our Belfast campus


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County Antrim
BT15 1ED

T: 028 7012 3456


Here is a guide to the subjects studied on this course.

Courses are continually reviewed to take advantage of new teaching approaches and developments in research, industry and the professions. Please be aware that modules may change for your year of entry. The exact modules available and their order may vary depending on course updates, staff availability, timetabling and student demand. Please contact the course team for the most up to date module list.

Year one

Energy and Environmental Systems

Year: 1

The module provides a firm grounding in energy conversion through fundamental theory demonstrated in the analysis of conventional and alternative energy conversion systems.

Mathematics - BEng

Year: 1

This module covers those mathematics topics which graduates in the engineering discipline will require for professional practice. For certain engineering courses this module also provides a platform for the further study of mathematics.

The module starts with refresher topics, includes basic algebra, mathematical functions, polynomial equations, logarithms and exponentials, trigonometry, complex numbers, matrices and determinants, vectors, differentiation and integration, and finishes with subject of sequences and series.

Sustainable Development in the Built Environment

Year: 1

This module introduces the student to a range of economic, environmental and social challenges and how these impact upon built environment disciplines. It provides for an appreciation of the policy and actions needed to stimulate behavioural change across a range of issues such as over reliance on fossil fuels, combating social deprivation, mobility and travel behaviour, consumerism and ethical thinking. Students will get the opportunity to reflect on their own attitudes and values to determine how to take more sustainable decisions and how to influence positive change in the wider built environment.

Building Services

Year: 1

This module introduces the student to the requirements of mechanical HVAC and electrical
building services in the internal environment, including design of building heating and
ventilation systems and the fundamentals of electrical design and installation within

Digital Construction and Communication

Year: 1

The modern day built environment professional is required to communicate effectively utilising electronic tools with the rest of the project team. This has been mandated by the UK Cabinet Office Construction Strategy, by European Commission procurement regulations and is being followed across the world. This module develops an understanding of the key drivers and barriers to fully implementing Level 2 BIM and points towards the development of level 3 BIM working in the near future. The module develops the foundational skills for internationally recognised BIM Level 2 for the contemporary and future built environment professionals.

Science for Engineers

Year: 1

Engineering is a rapidly evolving field requiring enhanced levels of competency in underpinning sciences. Physics and chemistry play a critical role in a number of engineering areas and energy applications. This module will provide a fundamental knowledge and understanding of the chemical and physical principles relevant to engineers.

Year two

Building Environmental Design

Year: 2

This module seeks to engender ownership of the profession amongst the students by giving them a taste of architecturally informed building design and practice. It introduces the students to building thermal modelling (BTM), thermal comfort, lighting and acoustics. Students completing this module will have an understanding of project management and be able to use BTM to improve the design of buildings, and how it can help deliver buildings with improved indoor environmental quality.

Electrical Distribution Systems

Year: 2

The module includes subjects covering from sizing electrical wiring and protective devices both in a domestic and industrial context to low voltage transmission and distribution. The module addresses regulations associated with the power lines and electrical services for the buildings.

Thermodynamics & Heat Transfer

Year: 2

This is a fundamental module for anyone studying energy systems or energy conversion technologies. It introduces the student to the fundamentals of thermodynamics and heat transfer. Students will undertake a series of lectures on heat transfer and thermodynamics, which will be accompanied by laboratories and tutorials. A high level of numeracy is required and the ability to set up, observe and report on experimental apparatus.

Solar thermal and photovoltaic technologies

Year: 2

This module will enable students to identify and understand the current solar thermal and solar photovoltaic technologies and understand how these resources may be managed with a view to future sustainability and demonstrate how the management of energy can benefit industry financially in the short term and influence sustainability in the longer term.

Mechanical Services Design

Year: 2

This module deals with the subject of providing mechanical HVAC systems (with reference to architectural, energy and occupant comfort) in buildings. To meet this requirement detailed fundamental principles of heating, ventilation and air conditioning are examined with a view to applying them in building services system design

Biomass & Bio-Energy

Year: 2

This module will introduce students to the diverse sources, technologies and applications of energy from biomass for electricity generation, heat generation and as transport fuel. It will include the practical hands on testing and design of biomass systems. This will be relevant for the future building services engineer to cater for low environmental impact buildings

Year three

Professional Practice - Architectural Engineering and Energy

Year: 3

This module provides undergraduate students with an opportunity to gain structured and professional work experience, in a work-based learning environment, as part of their planned programme of study. This experience allows students to develop, refine and reflect on their key personal and professional skills. The placement should significantly support the development of the student's employability skills, preparation for final year and enhance their employability journey.

Year four

Construction Management A

Year: 4

The construction industry, including the organisations and the people they employ, is always under pressure to improve its performance with respect to cost, time and quality. The module is a response to these demands, in that it examines current practice and possible areas for change in the management of process and people in design and construction. The module draws together the processes of tendering for construction and decision making within construction/design operations, in the context of relevant contractual arrangements and the people/organisations concerned. The management simulation provides an opportunity for teams to choose suitable strategies for improved performance relating to sustainable development. Practical applications and case studies are employed to bring reality to the classroom.

Design Evaluation

Year: 4

The module builds upon previous knowledge of building services engineering systems to prepare students to participate in the design evaluation and design processes in a wide range of building services related projects. The module is firmly grounded in the principles, appreciation and application of good design and requires the student to apply innovation and creativity to arriving at installations that are 'fit for purpose'.


Year: 4

Project is an essential component of the course. It is the most student-centred element and facilitates the development of self and time management skills as well as furthering technical competence and understanding.

Energy Economics and Management

Year: 4

This module examines current and future energy markets, market participation, the development of the smart grid and how building design can be used to optimise energy efficiency, storage and generation.

Green Building Design

Year: 4

This module will allow students to understand and critically appraise the factors affecting energy consumption in buildings enabling them to explore a wide range of low energy options in both domestic and non-domestic buildings. This will enable them to reduce the auxiliary energy load of any renewable energy solutions that may be considered while appreciating the main hazards to health in modern building designs.


Year: 4

This module provides an environment in which students are subjected to technical design and design evaluation activities to ensure that building services engineering systems are fit for purpose. The design process is presented as a logical methodology, building upon the skills and knowledge acquired from previous modules and practical experiences of work placement. In this 'hands-on' studio based setting, the module will require students to participate in exercises that involve design inquiry and analysis to challenge their perceptions of building services designs in existing buildings. The final design exercise requires the students to synthesise their technical and managerial knowledge and experiences in delivering a total building services design solution for a building with a substantial building services requirement

HVAC Systems

Year: 4

This module deals with the design and operation of heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in buildings with a significant emphasis on cooling and refrigeration, back dropped against architectural integration. The module instructs the student on modern methods in the design, selection and sizing of the HVAC provision for buildings and the influence of occupant comfort requirements. A study of the practical design, construction, installation and maintenance of HVAC and refrigeration plant compliment the students understanding. Finally the implications of system design, installation and commissioning are detailed against the backdrop of application, economics and energy performance.

Standard entry conditions

We recognise a range of qualifications for admission to our courses. In addition to the specific entry conditions for this course you must also meet the University’s General Entrance Requirements.

A level

The A Level requirement for this course is BBB to include 2 subjects from Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Technology and Design, Engineering, Environmental Technology, Environmental Science, Life and Health Sciences (single or double award) Construction or Engineering.

We will also accept Applied Science, Geography, ICT/IT or Design and Technology/Technology and Design as long as they are presented with one of the main A level subjects above.

For those applicants offering desirable subjects at A level (Mathematics or Physics) a two grade reduction will be applied at the time of offer. The desirable subject must be achieved at a minimum grade B.

Providing the two-subject requirement is met, applicants can satisfy the requirement for one of the A level grades (or equivalent) by substituting a combination of alternative qualifications recognised by the University.

If not offering A-level Mathematics or AS-level Mathematics, a GCSE Mathematics at Grade B is required.

Applied General Qualifications

The Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment accept a range of alternative combinations of qualifications such as:

BTEC Extended Awards
BTEC Level 3 QCF Extended Diploma in Construction, Applied Science or Engineering with overall award profile DDD.


BTEC Level 3 RQF National Extended Diploma in Construction, Applied Science or Engineering with overall award profile DDM.

Specific modules are required and depending on the BTEC subject the required modules within the BTEC qualifications are:
QCF in Construction - Distinction in Mathematics in Construction and the Built Environment or Further Mathematics in Construction and the Built Environment
QCF in Applied Science - Mathematical Calculations for Science or Mathematical Tools in Science
QCF in Engineering - Mathematics for Engineering Technicians or Further Mathematics for Engineering Technicians.

RQF in Construction - Distinction in Further Mathematics for Construction
RQF in Applied Science - Principles and Applications of Science II
RQF in Engineering - Further Engineering Mathematics.


A levels with:
BTEC Level 3 QCF Subsidiary Diploma;
BTEC RQF National Extended Certificate;
BTEC Level 3 QCF 90-credit Diploma;
BTEC Level 3 RQF National Foundation Diploma;
BTEC Level 3 QCF Diploma or BTEC Level 3 RQF National Diploma.

OCR Nationals and Cambridge Technical Combinations do not satisfy the subject entry requirement for this course and will be accepted as grade only when presented with A levels in the required subjects.

The two-subject requirement must be met.

For further information on the entry requirements for this course please contact the Course Administrator as detailed in the Contact section below.

Irish Leaving Certificate

120 UCAS Tariff Points to include a minimum of 4 subjects at Higher Level and 1 subject at Ordinary Level. Higher Level subjects must include two subjects at grade H3 from Mathematics, Physics, Applied Science, Chemistry, Biology, Environmental Technology, Geography, Construction or Engineering. The overall profile must include English at grade H6 or above (HL) or grade 04 or above (Ordinary level).

If Mathematics and Physics are not being presented in the above profile then they are required at grade H6 or above (HL) or grade 04 or above (Ordinary level).

Irish Leaving Certificate UCAS Equivalency

Scottish Highers

The Scottish Highers requirement for this course is Grades BBBCC to include grade B in Mathematics and one other subject from: Environmental Technology, Environmental Science, Applied Science, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Construction or Engineering.

Scottish Advanced Highers

The Scottish Advanced Highers requirement for this course is Grades CCC to include Mathematics and one other subject from: Environment Technology, Environmental Science, Applied Science, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Construction or Engineering.

International Baccalaureate

Overall International Baccalaureate profile minimum of 26 points (13 at higher level) to include Grade 4 in Higher Level Mathematics and one other subject from Environmental Technology, Environmental Science, Applied Science, Geography, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Construction or Engineering. Grade 4 in English Language is also required in the overall profile.

Access to Higher Education (HE)

Science, Technology, Mathematics, Physics or Engineering Access with an overall mark of 65%, and 65% in NICATS Level 2 Mathematics module for Year 1 entry.


GCSE English and Mathematics at grade C or 4.

If Mathematics is not being offered at A/AS level, Grade B, C* or 5 in GCSE Mathematics is required.

Please note that for purposes of entry to this course the Level 2 Certificate in Essential Skills - Application of Number is NOT regarded as an acceptable alternative to GCSE Maths.

English Language Requirements

English language requirements for international applicants
The minimum requirement for this course is Academic IELTS 6.0 with no band score less than 5.5. Trinity ISE: Pass at level III also meets this requirement for Tier 4 visa purposes.

Ulster recognises a number of other English language tests and comparable IELTS equivalent scores.

Additional Entry Requirements

HNC requirement in a Construction, Civil or Building Services Engineering subject area is overall Distinction to include 90 level 4 credits at Distinction for year one entry.

HND requirement in a Construction, Civil or Building Services Engineering subject area is overall Merit to include 60 level 5 credits at Distinction for year 2 entry.

Ulster Foundation Degree
Pass in Foundation Degree in Architectural Engineering and Energy, Building Services or Renewable Energies with an overall mark of 55%, and minimum 55% in all taught level 5 modules for year 2 entry.

For further information on the requirements for this course please contact
the administrator as listed in the Contact details section below.

Entry equivalences can also be viewed in the online prospectus at

The General Entry Requirements must also be met including English Language minimum GCSE grade C or 4 (or equivalent). Please check the following link

Exemptions and transferability

Applicants who have successfully completed studies equivalent in content and level to the year 1 modules are considered for direct entry into year 2.

Students may transfer to the programme on good academic standing from other courses in the school or university on condition that they meet the entry requirements of the course and enter at Level 4. Due to the unique nature of the programme students cannot transfer into a different level as they will not have the pre-requisites to proceed.

Careers & opportunities

Graduate employers

Graduates from this course are now working for:

  • ARUP
  • Belfast Health and Social Care Trust
  • White Young Green (WYG)
  • Harvey Group
  • Belfast City Council
  • Semple and McKillop Consulting Engineers

Job roles

With this degree you could become:

  • Design Engineer
  • Design Consultant
  • Energy Manager
  • Facility Manager
  • M & E Engineer
  • Project Engineer
  • R & D

Career options

Embarking upon a career in Architectural Engineering can open a wide variety of career choices. You will be involved in the design of various building systems associated with industrial, commercial and residential buildings such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning, refrigeration, lighting, water service, drainage, plumbing, security and alarms, lifts, escalators, gas, electricity, and communication. You will work with architects, structural engineers, civil engineers and quantity surveyors in the design and construction of buildings. You will also have a growing role in the deployment of renewable energy systems and, sustainability and energy efficiency in buildings. You will be playing a key role in delivering the low carbon environment which will aid in combating climate change, fossil fuel depletion and reductions to fuel poverty.

The career development depends on the choice of specialisation and professional qualifications gained from appropriate professional body. Opportunities also exist to continue studies through the PhD research programmes in energy, infrastructure and sustainability issues.

You will be employed in the following areas:

  • General and specialist contracting, offering multi-disciplinary or specific industrial services
  • Design consulting practices (including architectural practices)
  • Governmental and public authorities
  • Facilities Management
  • Energy advice and training bodies
  • Education
  • Self-employment

Work placement / study abroad

Industrial Placement is a compulsory part of the programmes and shall normally consist of a minimum of 48 weeks of full-time work experience undertaken in Year 3. Industrial placement, for full-time students only, is regarded as an important component of the programme of study. Such experience sets the context of the final year studies and greatly enhances employment prospects.

Successful completion of the placement year leads to award of Diploma in Professional Practice (DPP) or Diploma in Professional Practice (International) (DPP(I)).

Professional recognition

Energy Institute (EI)

Accredited by the Energy Institute (EI) on behalf of the Engineering Council for the purposes of fully meeting the academic requirement for registration as an Incorporated Engineer and partially meeting the academic requirement for registration as a Chartered Engineer.

Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE)

Accredited by the Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) on behalf of the Engineering Council for the purposes of partially meeting the academic requirement for registration as a Chartered Engineer.


Start dates

  • September 2022

Fees and funding

Scholarships, awards and prizes

The following awards are sponsored by the CIBSE and local industries

  • Best 2nd year student
  • Best placement student
  • Best full time BEng (Hons) final year student
  • Best part time BEng (Hons) final year student

In addition Hays Recruitment agency also sponsor a prize for the best placement student of the year award.

Additional mandatory costs

Tuition fees and costs associated with accommodation, travel (including car parking charges), and normal living are a part of university life.

Where a course has additional mandatory expenses we make every effort to highlight them. These may include residential visits, field trips, materials (e.g. art, design, engineering) inoculations, security checks, computer equipment, uniforms, professional memberships etc.

We aim to provide students with the learning materials needed to support their studies. Our libraries are a valuable resource with an extensive collection of books and journals as well as first-class facilities and IT equipment. Computer suites and free wifi is also available on each of the campuses.

There will be some additional costs to being a student which cannot be itemised and these will be different for each student. You may choose to purchase your own textbooks and course materials or prefer your own computer and software. Printing and binding may also be required. There are additional fees for graduation ceremonies, examination resits and library fines. Additional costs vary from course to course.

Students choosing a period of paid work placement or study abroad as part of their course should be aware that there may be additional travel and living costs as well as tuition fees.

Please contact the course team for more information.


Admissions for entry requirements:
Dorothy McCrory
T: +44(0)28 9036 6231

Centralised Admissions staff:
T: +44(0)28 9036 6309

For course specific enquiries:
Dr Aggelos Zacharopoulos, Course Director
T: +44(0)28 9036 8227

For more information visit


  1. The University endeavours to deliver courses and programmes of study in accordance with the description set out in this prospectus. The University’s prospectus is produced at the earliest possible date in order to provide maximum assistance to individuals considering applying for a course of study offered by the University. The University makes every effort to ensure that the information contained in the prospectus is accurate but it is possible that some changes will occur between the date of printing and the start of the academic year to which it relates. Please note that the University’s website is the most up-to-date source of information regarding courses and facilities and we strongly recommend that you always visit the website before making any commitments.
  2. Although reasonable steps are taken to provide the programmes and services described, the University cannot guarantee the provision of any course or facility and the University may make variations to the contents or methods of delivery of courses, discontinue, merge or combine courses and introduce new courses if such action is reasonably considered to be necessary by the University. Such circumstances include (but are not limited to) industrial action, lack of demand, departure of key staff, changes in legislation or government policy including changes, if any, resulting from the UK departing the European Union, withdrawal or reduction of funding or other circumstances beyond the University’s reasonable control.
  3. If the University discontinues any courses, it will use its best endeavours to provide a suitable alternative course. In addition, courses may change during the course of study and in such circumstances the University will normally undertake a consultation process prior to any such changes being introduced and seek to ensure that no student is unreasonably prejudiced as a consequence of any such change.
  4. The University does not accept responsibility (other than through the negligence of the University, its staff or agents), for the consequences of any modification or cancellation of any course, or part of a course, offered by the University but will take into consideration the effects on individual students and seek to minimise the impact of such effects where reasonably practicable.
  5. The University cannot accept any liability for disruption to its provision of educational or other services caused by circumstances beyond its control, but the University will take all reasonable steps to minimise the resultant disruption to such services.