Every pregnant woman has to make a decision about infant feeding. The outcome decision is affected by many factors including personal experience, social and cultural factors, education, policy and cultural practices. The WHO message is clear: breastfeeding is the norm and UNICEF and the Baby Friendly Initiative support this. However, the breastfeeding rates in Northern Ireland are the lowest in the UK. Therefore, it is important to conduct research studies that help us to identify the key factors that influence the decision NOT to breastfeed so that targeted interventions can be developed and tested.
We know from the literature that many women have negative and disempowering breastfeeding experiences and may feel traumatised by their lack of success in achieving their breastfeeding goal. It is therefore important to explore the nature of women’s experiences and to ascertain if Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy might enable women to process the previous experience and be open to another attempt at mastering the behaviour with their subsequent baby.
Examining EDMR is timely as little is known about the effects of applying the therapy during pregnancy, childbirth and the early postnatal period (Baas et al. 2017). This study aims to identify mothers who had a previous negative breastfeeding experience and are afraid to engage in the behaviour again. These women will be offered EMDR therapy to see if it enables them to re-engage in the breastfeeding behaviour and achieve their personal breastfeeding goal.
The main aim of the study is to determine whether EMDR therapy is an effective and safe treatment for women with previous negative or traumatic breastfeeding experiences in achieving their breastfeeding goals.
Women who had a previous negative breastfeeding experience will be recruited using social media and invited to take part in the study. Power analysis will be used to estimate the sample size
Data collection approaches
The first stage of the study will be exploratory and descriptive using online chat and email to gauge the factors surrounding women’s previous negative breastfeeding experience. A sub sample of women who complete the online data collection and are willing to support the intervention arm of the study will be invited to take part in the next stage of the study where they will have pre-birth measures of anxiety and trauma taken prior to being randomised into receiving either normal care or EMDR therapy.
Traumatic factors will be identified and an intervention provided using EMDR therapy sessions x3. These sessions will be delivered by specifically trained health professionals. Post birth data will be collected and repeat measures applied Main outcome: The main outcome is successful breastfeeding behaviour
Data analyses will include qualitative and quantitative measures.
Outcomes: This study will provide evidence of the effectiveness of EMDR as a suitable intervention for reducing trauma associated with previous breastfeeding experience.
If the University receives a large number of applicants for the project, the following desirable criteria may be applied to shortlist applicants for interview.
The University offers the following awards to support PhD study and applications are invited from UK, EU and overseas for the following levels of support:
Full award (full-time PhD fees + DfE level of maintenance grant + RTSG for 3 years).
This scholarship will cover full-time PhD tuition fees and provide the recipient with £15,000 maintenance grant per annum for three years (subject to satisfactory academic performance). This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training studentship grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.
Part award (full-time PhD fees + 50% DfE level of maintenance grant + RTSG for 3 years).
This scholarship will cover full-time PhD tuition fees and provide the recipient with £7,500 maintenance grant per annum for three years (subject to satisfactory academic performance). This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training studentship grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.
Fees only award (PhD fees + RTSG for 3 years).
This scholarship will cover full-time PhD tuition fees for three years (subject to satisfactory academic performance). This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training studentship grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.
The scholarship will cover tuition fees at the Home rate and a maintenance allowance of £ 15,009 per annum for three years. EU applicants will only be eligible for the fee’s component of the studentship (no maintenance award is provided). For Non-EU nationals the candidate must be "settled" in the UK. This scholarship also comes with £900 per annum for three years as a research training studentship grant (RTSG) allocation to help support the PhD researcher.
Due consideration should be given to financing your studies; for further information on cost of living etc. please refer to: www.ulster.ac.uk/doctoralcollege/postgraduate-research/fees-and-funding/financing-your-studies
Ulster University has very enhanced independent learning. I strongly recommend my students to go abroad to broaden their vision to get new motivation. I tell them that when studying at Ulster University, they will receive an abundance of knowledge, new experiences and strong technology to enhance their life.
Professor Stenver Lin - PhD RadiologyWatch Video
I am currently the Director for the Department of Nursing-midwifery and Women's Heath at NTUNHS. I studied at Ulster University for 3 years and it was a very happy time. Ulster is very good for study, not only in academic work but it also shows you how to be a good teacher.
Professor Chein Huei Kao - PhD Health Science of NursingWatch Video
Monday 18 February 2019
Mid March 2019
The largest of Ulster's campuses
When applying for this PhD opportunity please quote reference number: