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Electronics and Embedded Systems
BEng (Hons)

2020/21 Full-time Undergraduate course

Award:

Bachelor of Engineering with Honours

Faculty:

Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment

School:

School of Computing, Engineering and Intelligent Systems

Campus:

Magee campus

UCAS code:

GH56
The UCAS code for Ulster University is U20

Start date:

September 2020

With this degree you could become:


  • Digital designer
  • Electronics engineer
  • Embedded systems engineer
  • Microprocessor systems developer
  • System design engineer
  • Test engineer

Graduates from this course are now working for:


  • Sensata Technologies (formerly Schrader International)
  • Seagate Technology
  • SAP
  • Intel
  • IBM
  • Xilinx
  • Google

Overview

Develop the skills of electronic systems design and computer programming to be able to build future computer systems, small in size and low in power.

Summary

This course is offered at the Magee campus by the Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environement. The course aims to prepare students for a career in professional computer engineering. It seeks to produce students with a high level of proficiency and a sound understanding of the integration of software and hardware systems design. If you are interested in developing proficiency in both computing and electronic engineering, this is the course for you.


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About this course

About

The BEng Hons Electronics and Embedded Systems course combines the theory and practice of both electronic design and software development through formal lectures and tutorials, supported by hands-on laboratory experiments. The practical laboratory sessions are used to underpin the theory on hardware-software interfacing, performance, and design-for-reliability which occur when developing electronic hardware systems and software programs. In particular, the course develops the necessary knowledge and skills in how the electronic hardware can be interfaced with software programs, whereby the software controls the operation of the electronic hardware. Case studies are also presented during the course to highlight both intuitive design techniques and deficiencies. Throughout the course, students will get the opportunity to work with industry standard design tools and use electronic instrumentation (e.g. oscilloscope, function generators) to debug and diagnose circuits.

The University regularly ‘refreshes’ courses to make sure they are as up-to-date as possible. The University calls this process 'academic revalidation’. This course will be ‘refreshed’ during the 2017/18 academic year, with changes put in place for students entering in September 2018. For the most up-to-date course/ module information, please contact the Course Director:

Mairin Nicell E: ma.nicell@ulster.ac.uk

Associate awards

Diploma in Professional Practice DPP

Diploma in Professional Practice International DPPI

Diploma in International Academic Studies DIAS

Find out more about placement awards

Attendance

Four years, including placement.

Each student must complete 120 credits (usually six modules) in each academic year, with the exception of placement year (60 credits). Years 1, 2 and 4 are spent in the University. Modules are taught on campus and are web-supplemented. In Year 3, students undertake a year's work experience.

Start dates

  • September 2020

Teaching, Learning and Assessment

Lectures are used to present theory and concepts, and are supported through a combination of tutorial discussion and practical, laboratory exercises. Students will be directed to read sections of recommended texts and will be expected to undertake directed reading in preparation for all scheduled classes, and to consolidate the material covered in class by private study.

Modules are either assessed by coursework only or by a combination of coursework and formal examinations (January and May). Coursework assessment is carried out using any combination of written assignments, class tests, practical tests, presentations, and group assignments as appropriate to meet the learning outcomes of each module.

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    Content

    The content for each course is summarised on the relevant course page, along with an overview of the modules that make up the course.

    Each course is approved by the University and meets the expectations of:

    • the relevant generic national Qualification Descriptor
    • the applicable Subject Benchmark Statement
    • the requirements of any professional, regulatory, statutory and accrediting bodies.

    Attendance and Independent Study

    As part of your course induction, you will be provided with details of the organisation and management of the course, including attendance and assessment requirements - usually in the form of a timetable. For full-time courses, the precise timetable for each semester is not confirmed until close to the start date and may be subject to some change in the early weeks as all courses settle into their planned patterns. For part-time courses which require attendance on particular days and times, an expectation of the days and periods of attendance will be included in the letter of offer. A course handbook is also made available.

    Courses comprise modules for which the notional effort involved is indicated by its credit rating. Each credit point represents 10 hours of student effort. Undergraduate courses typically contain 10- or 20-credit modules (more usually 20) and postgraduate course typically 15- or 30-credit modules.

    The normal study load expectation for an undergraduate full-time course of study in the standard academic year is 120 credit points. This amounts to around 36-42 hours of expected teaching and learning per week, inclusive of attendance requirements for lectures, seminars, tutorials, practical work, fieldwork or other scheduled classes, private study, and assessment. Part-time study load is the same as full-time pro-rata, with each credit point representing 10 hours of student effort.

    Postgraduate Master’s courses typically comprise 180 credits, taken in three semesters when studied full-time. A Postgraduate Certificate (PGCert) comprises 60 credits and can usually be completed on a part-time basis in one year. A 120-credit Postgraduate Diploma (PGDip) can usually be completed on a part-time basis in two years.

    Class contact times vary by course and type of module. Typically, for a module predominantly delivered through lectures you can expect at least 3 contact hours per week (lectures/seminars/tutorials). Laboratory classes often require a greater intensity of attendance in blocks. Some modules may combine lecture and laboratory. The precise model will depend on the course you apply for and may be subject to change from year to year for quality or enhancement reasons. Prospective students will be consulted about any significant changes.

    Assessment

    Assessment methods vary and are defined explicitly in each module. Assessment can be a combination of examination and coursework but may also be only one of these methods. Assessment is designed to assess your achievement of the module’s stated learning outcomes. You can expect to receive timely feedback on all coursework assessment. The precise assessment will depend on the module and may be subject to change from year to year for quality or enhancement reasons. You will be consulted about any significant changes.

    Coursework can take many forms, for example: essay, report, seminar paper, test, presentation, dissertation, design, artefacts, portfolio, journal, group work. The precise form and combination of assessment will depend on the course you apply for and the module. Details will be made available in advance through induction, the course handbook, the module specification and the assessment timetable. The details are subject to change from year to year for quality or enhancement reasons. You will be consulted about any significant changes.

    Normally, a module will have 4 learning outcomes, and no more than 2 items of assessment. An item of assessment can comprise more than one task. The notional workload and the equivalence across types of assessment is standardised.

    Calculation of the Final Award

    The class of Honours awarded in Bachelor’s degrees is usually determined by calculation of an aggregate mark based on performance across the modules at Levels 5 and 6, (which correspond to the second and third year of full-time attendance).

    Level 6 modules contribute 70% of the aggregate mark and Level 5 contributes 30% to the calculation of the class of the award. Classification of integrated Master’s degrees with Honours include a Level 7 component. The calculation in this case is: 50% Level 7, 30% Level 6, 20% Level 5. At least half the Level 5 modules must be studied at the University for Level 5 to be included in the calculation of the class.

    All other qualifications have an overall grade determined by results in modules from the final level of study. In Master’s degrees of more than 200 credit points the final 120 points usually determine the overall grading.

Academic profile

The University employs over 1,000 suitably qualified and experienced academic staff - 59% have PhDs in their subject field and many have professional body recognition.

Courses are taught by staff who are Professors (25%), Readers, Senior Lecturers (18%) or Lecturers (57%).

We require most academic staff to be qualified to teach in higher education: 82% hold either Postgraduate Certificates in Higher Education Practice or higher. Most academic staff (81%) are accredited fellows of the Higher Education Academy (HEA) - the university sector professional body for teaching and learning. Many academic and technical staff hold other professional body designations related to their subject or scholarly practice.

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    The profiles of many academic staff can be found on the University’s departmental websites and give a detailed insight into the range of staffing and expertise. The precise staffing for a course will depend on the department(s) involved and the availability and management of staff. This is subject to change annually and is confirmed in the timetable issued at the start of the course.

    Occasionally, teaching may be supplemented by suitably qualified part-time staff (usually qualified researchers) and specialist guest lecturers. In these cases, all staff are inducted, mostly through our staff development programme ‘First Steps to Teaching’. In some cases, usually for provision in one of our out-centres, Recognised University Teachers are involved, supported by the University in suitable professional development for teaching.

    Figures correct for academic year 2019-2020.

Magee campus

Our vision is aligned to the strategic growth plan for the city and region.


Accommodation

Enjoy student life in one of Europe's most vibrant cities.

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Sports Facilities

Our facilities in Magee cater for many sports ranging from archery to volleyball, and are open to students and members of the public all year round.

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Student support

At Student Support we provide many services to help students through their time at Ulster University.

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Address

Ulster University
Northland Road
Derry~Londonderry
County Londonderry
BT48 7JL

T: 028 7012 3456

Modules

Here is a guide to the subjects studied on this course.

Courses are continually reviewed to take advantage of new teaching approaches and developments in research, industry and the professions. Please be aware that modules may change for your year of entry. The exact modules available and their order may vary depending on course updates, staff availability, timetabling and student demand. Please contact the course team for the most up to date module list.

Year one

Computer Hardware and Operating Systems

Year: 1

Differences in the internal structure and organisation of a computer lead to significant differences in performance and functionality, giving rise to an extraordinary range of computing devices, from hand-held computers to large-scale, high-performance machines. This module addresses the various options involved in designing a computer system, the range of design considerations, and the trade-offs involved in the design process.

Mathematics for Engineering I

Year: 1

This module provides students with a solid foundation in the fundamental topics in engineering mathematics. The material develops the student's competencies in the essential mathematics that forms an integral part of an undergraduate honours degree in engineering related disciplines.

Electricity and Magnetism

Year: 1

This module will introduce the fundamental concepts of electrostatic and electromagnetic, related rules, electric and magnetic materials and their characteristics, and their applications in physical systems.

Programming for Engineering

Year: 1

This module provides students with a solid foundation in developing software programs using a procedural programming language. It utilises a middle-level language to enable the engineering student to understand the relationship between software programs and the underlying hardware on which the program operates, whilst learning the key concepts and skills relevant to many modern high-level languages.

Digital Electronics

Year: 1

This module introduces the fundamentals of digital electronic devices and simple logic circuits as well as basic logic design techniques. The module introduces the student to basic digital electronics principles presented using a combination of lectures, tutorials and practical laboratories and are assessed using continuous assessment in the form of a written class test and lab practical assessments.

Circuit Analysis I

Year: 1

This module provides an introduction to the key electronic components, the basic concepts of electronic circuit design and the basic principles of electronic circuit testing and measurement taking. This module introduces the student to analogue electronics principles presented using a combination of lectures, tutorials and practical laboratories and are assessed using continuous assessment in the form of a class test and lab practical assessments.

Year two

Microcontroller Systems

Year: 2

This module introduces micro-controllers/programmable logic controllers and the principles of modern interfacing to sensors and actuators. The module also discusses performance issues related to the interrupt and non-interrupt based software programming. Both elements of the module are presented through lectures, tutorials, and practical sessions and are assessed using continuous assessment methods.

Embedded Programming

Year: 2

This module introduces embedded C programming. The focus is on embedded programming concepts targeting the design of embedded programs for dedicated micro-processor/controllers hardware used in a wide array of modern applications such as automobiles, domestic appliances and mobile technology including IoT systems.

Mathematics for Engineering II

Year: 2

This module introduces students to the essential mathematics with appropriate numerical computing and programming required for embarking on further study in engineering or a related discipline. It develops the students mathematical skills required to solve problems that arise in the context of their undergraduate study. The module content is introduced in a pragmatic way and then related to real world problems, which enhances understanding and makes the concepts more meaningful and relevant for the student. The module also aims to generate in the student a spirit of mathematical investigation and discovery leading to the development of mathematical confidence. An introduction is given to MatLab, the multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and fourth-generation programming language; assessment in also partially completed in MatLab.

Professional Development

Year: 2

This module is designed to equip students with the appropriate research and transferable skills needed to secure employment within the Computing and Engineering domain.

The module prepares students for professional work by developing knowledge of the responsibilities and obligations of employees, employers and clients as determined by codes of professional conduct. Students will have the opportunity to practise the presentation of themselves in, for example, application forms, curriculum vitae, interview, elevator pitches and aptitude tests.

The module provides an underpinning foundation of research concepts, methods and techniques necessary for project development and delivery. The students employ research skills developed during the module to gather research from a variety of sources and critically review this literature. Embedded in all these activities is the reinforcement of the need for adhering to recognised ethical standards and taking a professional approach to employability.

Engineering of Control Systems and Signals

Year: 2

This level 5 module will endow engineering students with the knowledge and skills to analyse and design control systems and signal processing systems.

Digital Electronics II

Year: 2

This module introduces digital building blocks and the principles of modern digital systems design. The module also discusses performance issues related to the realisation of digital systems. Both elements of the module are presented through lectures, tutorials and practical sessions and are assessed using both continuous assessment and formal written examination methods.

Circuit Analysis II

Year: 2

This module introduces the principles of design of analogue and digital building blocks which can be integrated to form electronic systems of moderate complexity. The module also discusses issues related to the interfacing of analogue and digital signals. Both elements of the module are presented through lectures, tutorials and practicals and are assessed using both continuous assessment and formal written examination methods.

Year three

Professional Practice - Computing

Year: 3

This module provides undergraduate students with an opportunity to gain structured and professional work experience, in a work-based learning environment, as part of their planned programme of study. This experience allows students to develop, refine and reflect on their key personal and professional skills. The placement should significantly support the development of the student's employability skills, preparation for final year and enhance their employability journey.

International Academic Studies

Year: 3

This module is optional

This module provides an opportunity to undertake an extended period of study outside the UK and Republic of Ireland. Students will develop an enhanced understanding of the academic discipline whilst generating educational and cultural networks.

Year four

Intelligent Robotics

Year: 4

This level 6 module will present some of the sensing, perception, planning, learning, control, and movement generation principles necessary to design and program intelligent robots.

Final Year Project

Year: 4

Students are required to undertake a major project during the final year of the course. The module offers students an opportunity to develop a realistic and meaningful piece of work during their final year. This module allows a chosen subject area to be researched in depth and a solution developed as a consequence. Students will have the opportunity to integrate and apply the learning achieved from other modules in the course. The module runs during both semesters and allows students to develop a comprehensive approach to all aspects of working on a large project. The project encourages innovation and creative thinking in the development of the solution. It also develops the entrepreneurial mindset, which can influence the challenges undertaken and final decisions made.

Programmable Logic Systems

Year: 4

This module is designed to reinforce and further develop a student's digital design and implementation skills. It is presented via lectures, tutorials, seminars and practicals and is assessed using continuous assessment methods.

Microelectronics

Year: 4

This module provides students with a graduate level understanding of semiconductor materials and microelectronics circuit performance. Additionally students will be analytically proficient in microelectronic circuit analysis techniques and be able to produce design equations for temperature stability of these circuits. The module will teach the concept of interconnect delay and noise using models of delay lines circuit noise. All teaching material will be supported with lab simulations.

Industry 4.0

Year: 4

This module advances the understanding of Internet of Things in an Industrial context as Industry 4.0, encapsulating the trends and technologies that are transforming the way manufacturing and production operations manage their processes. Its focuses on how data is produced, stored, processed, analysed, and exchanged between operational systems inside industrial plants and in the cloud. The elements of the module are presented through lectures, tutorials and practical sessions and are assessed using continuous assessment methods.

Entry conditions

We recognise a range of qualifications for admission to our courses. In addition to the specific entry conditions for this course you must also meet the University’s General Entrance Requirements.

A level

Grades BBB to include one from Mathematics, Further Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Computing (not IT/ICT), Software Systems Development, Technology and Design, Design and Technology, Electronics, Engineering or Double Award Science/Applied Science.

Desirable Subject offer: For applicants offering Maths, Further Maths or Physics subjects at A Level, a one grade reduction will be applied at the time of offer.

Applied General Qualifications

The Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Envionment accept a range of alternative combinations of qualifications such as:

BTEC Level 3 QCF Extended Diploma in Computing (not ICT/IT), Electronics or an Engineering discipline, with overall award profile of DDM to include a minimum of 9 unit distinctions.

OR

BTEC Level 3 RQF National Extended Diploma in Computing (not ICT/IT), Electronics or an Engineering discipline, with overall award profile of DDM.

A Levels with;
BTEC Level 3 QCF Subsidiary Diploma;
BTEC RQF National Extended Certificate does not satisfy the subject requirement for this course and will only be considered when presented with an A Level in one of the specified subjects (please refer to A level section);
BTEC Level 3 QCF 90-credit Diploma;
BTEC Level 3 RQF National Foundation Diploma does not satisfy the subject requirement for this course and will only be considered when presented with an A Level in one of the specified subjects;
BTEC Level 3 QCF Diploma or BTEC Level 3 RQF National Diploma.

Irish Leaving Certificate

Grades H3,H3,H3,H3,H3 to include at least one science-based subject (Mathematics, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Computing, Technology or Engineering).

English and Maths grade H6 or above (Higher Level) or Grade O4 or above (Ordinary Level) if not sitting at Higher Level are also required.

Scottish Highers

The Scottish Highers requirement for this course is BBBCC to include minimum of grade B in a science subject.

English & Maths required at Standard Grade 1, 2 or 3

Scottish Advanced Highers

The Scottish Advanced Highers requirement for this course is CCC one of which must be a science subject.

English & Maths required at Standard Grade 1, 2 or 3

International Baccalaureate

Overall International Baccalaureate Diploma requirement is minimum 26 points (13 at Higher level to include Grade 5 HL Mathematics and another HL Science subject).

Higher or Subsidiary level in English Language required at Grade 4 or above

Access to Higher Education (HE)

Successful completion of an Ulster University validated Access route in Science/Technology with an overall mark of 70% for entry to year 1.

Plus 70% in NICATS Mathematics (level 2) or GCSE Mathematics grade C (or equivalent)

GCSE

GCSE (or equivalent) minimum of Grade C/4 or above in Mathematics and English Language.

Please note that for purposes of entry to this course the Level 2 Essential / Key Skill in Application of Number is NOT regarded as an acceptable alternative to GCSE Maths.

English Language Requirements

English language requirements for international applicants
The minimum requirement for this course is Academic IELTS 6.0 with no band score less than 5.5. Trinity ISE: Pass at level III also meets this requirement for Tier 4 visa purposes.

Ulster recognises a number of other English language tests and comparable IELTS equivalent scores.

Additional Entry Requirements

OCR/Cambridge Technical Combinations
OCR Nationals and Cambridge Technical qualifications do not satisfy the subject entry requirements to this course and will be accepted as grade only when presented with A levels in the relevant subject(s) (please refer to A level section).

HND/HNC
HNC overall Distinction in a relevant subject area for year 1 entry only.

HND overall Merit in a relevant subject area. HND applications may be considered for year 2 entry where the curriculum sufficiently matches that of Ulster University full time year 1 course.

Ulster Foundation Degree
Pass in a relevant subject area with overall 55% and minimum 55% in all taught level 5 modules. Applicants will normally be considered for entry to an associated Honours degree (normally Year 2 entry).

For further information regarding all of the above qualifications please contact admissions as listed in contact details below.

Entry equivalences can also be viewed in the online prospectus at http://www.ulster.ac.uk/apply/entrance-requirements/equivalence.

Exemptions and transferability

Transfer between this course and other similar courses within the Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment may be possible on the basis of academic performance.

Exemption from parts of the course may be considered based on appropriate performance in a related, designated course or other approved experiential learning (APEL).

The course has been designed to enable students who graduate with a good honours degree to apply for postgraduate study towards a PhD, MSc, MRes or other higher qualification.

United States of America flagAdditional information for students from United States of America

Undergraduate

Each programme will have slightly different requirements, both in terms of overall points and certain subjects, so please check the relevant subject in the undergraduate on-line prospectus.

Normally Ulster University welcomes applications from students with:

Qualification
High School Diploma with overall GPA 3.0 and to include grades 3,3,3 in 3 AP subjects
High School Diploma with overall GPA 3.0 and to include 1000 out of 1600 in SAT
Associate Degree with GPA 3.0

Financial Information

In addition to the scholarships and bursaries open to all international students, US students may apply for Federal and Private US loans

English Language

Qualification
Level 12 English Lang in HSD

View more information for students from United States of America  

Careers & opportunities

Graduate employers

Graduates from this course are now working for:

  • Sensata Technologies (formerly Schrader International)
  • Seagate Technology
  • SAP
  • Intel
  • IBM
  • Xilinx
  • Google

Job roles

With this degree you could become:

  • Digital designer
  • Electronics engineer
  • Embedded systems engineer
  • Microprocessor systems developer
  • System design engineer
  • Test engineer

Career options

Graduates with this mix of electronics and embedded systems programming skills have many career opportunities available to them; for example, careers in electronics circuit design, in the electronics or computing manufacturing industry, as project managers or in planning and technical management. There is also the opportunity to work in research. Opportunities for postgraduate study in electronics, embedded systems or a related area are broad.

Work placement / study abroad

All students normally spend one year on industrial placement (Year 3) working in some aspect of the computing/engineering industry for a minimum period of 25 weeks. On satisfactory completion of the placement period you are eligible for the award of Diploma in Professional Practice (DPP). Students who complete their industrial placement abroad receive the award of Diploma in Professional Practice (International).

Alternatively, students may apply to study abroad in another academic institution for a year. Satisfactory completion leads to the Award of Diploma in International Academic Studies (DIAS).

Professional recognition

BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT

Accredited by BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT for the purposes of fully meeting the academic requirement for registration as a Chartered IT Professional.

BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT

Accredited by BCS, the Chartered Institute for IT on behalf of the Science Council for the purposes of partially meeting the academic requirement for registration as a Chartered Scientist.

Apply

Applications to full-time undergraduate degrees at Ulster are made through UCAS.

Start dates

  • September 2020

Fees and funding

Fees (per year)

Important notice - fees information Fees illustrated are based on 19/20 entry and are subject to an annual increase. Correct at the time of publishing. Terms and conditions apply. Additional mandatory costs are highlighted where they are known in advance. There are other costs associated with university study.
Visit our Fees pages for full details of fees

Northern Ireland & EU: £4,395.00

England, Scotland, Wales and the Islands: £9,250.00

International: £14,480.00 Scholarships available

Scholarships, awards and prizes

Prizes and Scholarships for this course can be viewed on the Faculty Prize list:

www.ulster.ac.uk/academicoffice/prizes.html.

Follow the links to the Faculty of Computing, Engineering and the Built Environment.

Additional mandatory costs

N/A

Tuition fees and costs associated with accommodation, travel (including car parking charges), and normal living are a part of university life.

Where a course has additional mandatory expenses we make every effort to highlight them. These may include residential visits, field trips, materials (e.g. art, design, engineering) inoculations, security checks, computer equipment, uniforms, professional memberships etc.

We aim to provide students with the learning materials needed to support their studies. Our libraries are a valuable resource with an extensive collection of books and journals as well as first-class facilities and IT equipment. Computer suites and free wifi is also available on each of the campuses.

There will be some additional costs to being a student which cannot be itemised and these will be different for each student. You may choose to purchase your own textbooks and course materials or prefer your own computer and software. Printing and binding may also be required. There are additional fees for graduation ceremonies, examination resits and library fines. Additional costs vary from course to course.

Students choosing a period of paid work placement or study abroad as part of their course should be aware that there may be additional travel and living costs as well as tuition fees.

Please contact the course team for more information.

Disclaimer

  1. The University endeavours to deliver courses and programmes of study in accordance with the description set out in this prospectus. The University’s prospectus is produced at the earliest possible date in order to provide maximum assistance to individuals considering applying for a course of study offered by the University. The University makes every effort to ensure that the information contained in the prospectus is accurate but it is possible that some changes will occur between the date of printing and the start of the academic year to which it relates. Please note that the University’s website is the most up-to-date source of information regarding courses and facilities and we strongly recommend that you always visit the website before making any commitments.
  2. Although reasonable steps are taken to provide the programmes and services described, the University cannot guarantee the provision of any course or facility and the University may make variations to the contents or methods of delivery of courses, discontinue, merge or combine courses and introduce new courses if such action is reasonably considered to be necessary by the University. Such circumstances include (but are not limited to) industrial action, lack of demand, departure of key staff, changes in legislation or government policy including changes, if any, resulting from the UK departing the European Union, withdrawal or reduction of funding or other circumstances beyond the University’s reasonable control.
  3. If the University discontinues any courses, it will use its best endeavours to provide a suitable alternative course. In addition, courses may change during the course of study and in such circumstances the University will normally undertake a consultation process prior to any such changes being introduced and seek to ensure that no student is unreasonably prejudiced as a consequence of any such change.
  4. The University does not accept responsibility (other than through the negligence of the University, its staff or agents), for the consequences of any modification or cancellation of any course, or part of a course, offered by the University but will take into consideration the effects on individual students and seek to minimise the impact of such effects where reasonably practicable.
  5. The University cannot accept any liability for disruption to its provision of educational or other services caused by circumstances beyond its control, but the University will take all reasonable steps to minimise the resultant disruption to such services.